Between the World Wars: Articles from the Syracuse Union, available through the New York State Newspaper Project

January 26, 1922

Free Masons Advocate for the German Language

New York — The Free Mason Organization of America, which vehemently battled against the foes of the German language in certain large lodges and various other groups of people, has adopted a resolution regarding a far-reaching and significant issue. This will be of great import to the intellectual integrity of all German-American organizations. The resolution reads as follows:

"In light of the historic fact that George Washington's most successful generals, Baron von Steuben, Mühlenberg and Herchheimer victoriously fought decisive battles with German-trained troops commanded in the German language and exhibiting German bravery we consider the German language an essential element in the history of this republic.

"And in light of the situation that certain elements within this country have conducted a war against the use of the German language, thus contradicting the intentions of the founders of this republic, we see this as a breach of our sacred American traditions and a violation of our constitutionally protected rights.

"It is decided to oblige all branches of the Free Mason Organization of America to energetically and conscientiously support this resolution and to broadcast it widely in both German and English.

"It is further decided to challenge all German-American organizations to join in this fight for the historic and legal right to use the German language and to fully support this resolution as a fundamental principle and apply every effort to perpetuate the German language in their societies' periodicals and business papers."

February 9, 1922

The German Press


Despite Numerous Injuries It's No Less Influencial


Today There are 185 German Newspapers in 29 States


It's often been repeated that the war threatened the survival of the German Press in the United States. In 1914 there were over 500 daily, Sunday and one or more times per week newspapers in publication. This number did not include church publications, however including them today brings the number of publications to 185, 27 of which are daily newspapers.

In part the gap resulted from various newspapers merging in order to consolidate subscriptions, advertising and operating capital. The subscriptions of ceasing publications were picked up by others so despite the damage sustained by the German Press the size of the German-reading public was in no way affected.

Naturally the decline in the number of German weekly newspapers, which contained items of local interest, is regrettable. However the German element of various counties or cities in which these newspapers were published held firmly together. The daily newspapers and the larger weeklies which replaced the local papers and took over their subscribers were unable to provide the same level of coverage of local events. And it is all the more regrettable because the local German newspapers also preserved the German language used by German-American congregations. Local newspapers offered the possibility of a better portrait of Americans of German ancestry as migration within the entire German community of the United States occurred. All signs indicate that in the near future strong German migration will happen not just from the German Empire but from Austria and the resultant countries formed from the double monarchy, from Transylvania and Banat [southeastern Europe] and from the Prussian occupied territories of Poland. Since economic factors especially with regard to agriculture were key to the German-speaking population, weekly German newspapers contained coverage of German-American toil and thus contributed to the preservation of the German language.

In accordance with the way they are grouped by the U.S. Census, the American South had a far smaller German element as compared to the Middle Atlantic, East North Central, and West North Central states. Therefore the German language was much less prevalent, but there were German weekly newspapers in Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. During the war, and sometimes even earlier, various publications had to scale down the number of issues. Previously the distribution of county and political announcements in German newspapers could not be accomplished without financial risk to the printer. Almost always there were printing mistakes and the printer had trouble keeping his head above water and building a profitable business.

In Arizona, Delaware, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nevade, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia and Wyoming German newspapers were seldom available. In fact in Idaho, Mississippi, Maine, Nevada, Wyoming, New Hampshire, New Mexico and Vermont there had never been a German newspaper.

German newspapers exist in 29 states of the Union. Naturally their number is dependent upon the strength of the German-speaking element. The greatest number of German publications is in Wisconsin with 28. There are 23 in Illinois and 17 in New York. The greatest number of daily newspapers is 5 in the State of New York; Illinois follows with 4, Ohio with 4, Pennsylvania with 3, Wisconsin with 2, Missouri with 2. There is one daily German-language newspaper in Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, and New Jersey.

According to the 1920 Census nineteen cities of the United States have a German-born population of 10,000 or more. It has already been indicated that the geographic partitioning created by the Versailles Treaty seriously affected the 1920 Census because what were before deemed German immigrants would now be considered immigrants from Poland, France, and Denmark.

We've learned from the $3,000,000 campaign to continue feeding children in Germany that the greatest support came from areas where the German press was most active in engaging their German communities in the United States. Where the German Press had not lost its hold on the German-speaking populace the collection of donations was the greatest. In some cities they set up a financial goals, which were met or exceeded. In other cities where the German Press had lost its influence over the populace or had not stimulated sufficent interest in the campaign the results were below expectations.

Thus the $3,000,000 campaign to continue feeding the children of Germany yields incontrovertible evidence concerning the influence of the German Press. In some cities the organization's work has recently been introduced. If it is energetically supported by the German Press it cannot fail. Goals are set which can realistically be met by the city's German community and document its willingness of sacrifice for the old homeland.

Sending donations to this great fund to save the German children should not be delayed. Where local charity organizations are lacking donations can be mailed to the $3,000,000 Campaign, German Child Feeding, Philadelphia, Pa.. Money Orders can be paid to The Provident Life and Trust Company of Philadelphia, Treasurer.

April 6, 1922 page 4

"Because Our Children Shall Remain German."

Hats off to the Mennonites from Minnesota, who are on their way to Mexico because America threatens to take away their freedom of religion and their freedom to raise their children in the language of their fathers. These men have the spirit of the Boers who trekked from their country into another's land then waged a war leading to unspeakable atrocities in their supposedly heroic fight for independence against England. These Boers, whom Smuts did not correctly assess, are still Boers today. The Mennonites will remain Germans in Mexico.

The Mennonites, whose religion condemns warfare, have this in common with the Quakers. Their sect originally came from Holland. However these Mennonites, who emigrated from Canada and from Minnesota and now leave the state to its eternal detriment, are Germans. They will enrich Mexico as diligent, peace-loving, reasonable and culture-contributing settlers.

They are so German that the persecution they endured because they spoke German, prayed to God in German, and have German sentiments have driven them to emigrate. Compulsory education in the English sense of the word is just one reason. Other important reasons contributed.

One of the leaders of the emigration, Benjamin Fuhr, explained as the the emigrants stopped in Omaha, "We are German and want our children to remain German!" This is the mindset of strongly developed racial identity. It is a mindset which may bring great sacrifice for the sake of identity and conviction. Imitate them!

Imitate the Mennonites. See them as a noble sect which even you perhaps have ridiculed. And just because they want to maintain their brand of German life. Learn from them what it might mean to remain German in these times and what it means to allow the next generation to remain German.

Don't speak of sacrifices, which you cannot measure and which have different meanings for everyone. Hard earth becomes fallow fields with diligent effort but then being forced to leave because you wish to remain true to your religion and your race? Remain true as always.

                                                                                                (Detroit Abend Post)

April 6, 1922 page 7

Tips for Everyone!


In Prague gratuities have not yet been abolished. Absolutely not! A German from the former empire who doesn't know this is soon made to feel like an irksome foreigner. The most modest bill at a Prague café reads as follows: one black coffee, 1 Krone 80 Heller; tip to the head waiter, 50 Heller; server who brought the coffee, 40 Heller; the newspaper waiter, 40 Heller; the busboy, 20 Heller (even here the tip-base is for the four-tiered waiter system); the cloakroom lady, 60 Heller; music, 1 Krone; total 4 Krone 90 Heller — or in today's German Mark monetary system approximately 16 Marks for a small cup of mediocre black coffee. In nighttime cafés the final tally is doubled. In cafés with dancing the bill is triple. A basic hotel room costs 40 Krone; the porter gets five, the roomservice waiter gets five, the chambermaid gets three and the valet gets three Krone in gratuities. Initially the porter usually gets 50 Krone in order to prevent him from his insistent "Everything's occupied!" Even without paying this a one-night stay in a Prague hotel costs 56 Krone (equal to 170 Marks.)

When the Waiter's Union asked the restaurant owners for a ten-percent surcharge rather than gratuities it received the reply" "That is impossible. That would ruin foreign tourism." Incidentally, the tiered gratuity system is a major sight-seeing attraction in Prague.

May 4, 1922 page 3

A Victory for Americans of German Heritage


Governor Miller has vetoed the infamous Wiswall-Chamberlin Bill, which would have enacted legislation making English the only business language to be used in lodges, associations, societies, etc. in New York State.

The governor deserves the thanks of all liberal thinkers for countering this shocking bill. He has negated the cunning attempts by the clique, which has not reined in its hatred for all Germans since the end of the war. It's been clear since the beginning that such Know-Nothingness and one-size-fits-all patriotism have aimed at the ruination of the German language.

It's certainly to the benefit of the citizens of German heritage that the Wiswall-Chamberlin Bill was vetoed. American citizens of German abstraction alone carried on the fight against this infamous proposed law as demonstrated at the public hearing before the governor. No representative of any other cultural group said a word against the planned language ban although if the bill had passed it would have applied to all citizens of foreign abstraction...

The deadline was a short and hasty act of unspecified necessity. The German community rapidly came together with seldom-seen unity and organized a large demonstration of protest in our city. It called for a public hearing before the governor where convincing arguments against the bill were presented.

We congratulate the German community for its victory. The scope of its import cannot be underestimated. It just shows what closed door, unilateral dealings can try to bring about. There's no doubt that without forceful, united intervention of the German community this infamous measure would have become law. And the harm it would cause when it was first acted upon could scarcely bring about anything good.

As stated, the victory is a great one. But the German community must not rest on its laurels. The first assault has been averted. It should not be assumed that the Chauvanists and agitators behind this movement will quietly put their hands in their laps. They won't be put off by a slap on the wrist. More assaults will follow.

"The price of freedom is eternal vigilance."

Our citizens of German abstraction must be aware and remain vigilant.

                                                                                                (New Yorker Staatszeitung)

May 11, 1922 page 1

German War Widows Want to Establish a Colony in Mexico

Washington, D.C. — Two hundred German war widows have come to an agreement with the Mexican government to establish a colony in the State of Sonora. A message was passed on to the Mexican Embassy here in Washington from its foreign affairs office.

The Mexican goverment has pledged to cooperate with the widows and has given the women a large tract of land for their colonial experiment. The women are primarily wives of German farmers who also have a firm knowledge of scientific farming as it is practiced in Germany.

At first the colony will consist only of women. However it is understood that from time to time marriages with Mexican residents of Sonora will occur. If the experiment proves successful, more and larger parties of women will settle in Mexico.

The members of the Sonora Colony will dedicate their efforts towards arable farming and raising cattle.

May 18, 1922 page 7

A German Newspaper's Lament


The Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten published the following poem in its literary section:

If you still get a newspaper,
Thank God, consider yourself blessed.
Soon there won't be any more
Four thousand have been laid to rest.

Look in your local Zeitung, you'll see,
In the last month ninety papers died.
Just think of everything you'll miss
Once the river of information dries.

Support your German newspapers,
Stand by your German press.
Don't begrudge the higher prices,
They're truly in distress.

Costs, wages and taxes surge,
They might seal the Zeitung's fate.
Pay the few extra pennies,
Before it is too late!

If you still get a newspaper,
Thank God, consider yourself blessed!

May 25, 1922 page 8

A Berlin Menu from April 26, 1922


Mr. G. Buschle gave us the following menu from Berlin. It was mailed to him by his friend, Bernhard Brandt, who is travelling in Germany. By German standards the prices are extremely expensive. Dividing the prices by 3 to equate them with the value of the American cent shows that an American tourist can have a scumptious meal in Germany for a modest price.

A full glass of Kulmbacher Pilsner costs 3 cents; other brands at lesser prices. We hope that only a few German tourists come here to take advantage of the inexpensive cost of living since they could find many other uses for their American dollars.


1 white bread (roll) - 100 Pfennig
1 black bread (slice) - 80 Pfennig
1 cup coffee - 3 Marks
1 cup consommé - 2 Marks
      with egg - 7.50 Marks
      with slice of meat & vegetable pie - 14 Marks
Thickened Sago Soup - 2.25 Marks
      in tureen - 3 Marks
      with fish balls - 11 Marks
Split pea soup in tureen - 5 Marks
      with bacon - 10 Marks
Salted herring - 6.50 Marks
2 pieces roasted green herring with potato salad - 12 Marks
Sole with hollandaise sauce and potato salad - 15 Marks
Fried fish and salad - 12 Marks
Slice of meat & vegetable pie - 12 Mark
Mussels in ragout - 12 Marks
Asparagas spears in butter - 15 Marks
Filled pancakes - 16 Marks
2 eggs, scrambled or fried - 14 Marks
French toast with fruit sauce - 5 Marks
Buttered noodles - 7.50 Marks
Bavarian cabbage with mashed potatoes - 6 Marks
Mushy peas with sauerkraut - 7 Marks
Homemade aspic and remoulade - 10 Marks
Fish cutlets with sauerkraut and mashed potatoes - 12 Marks
Spinach and potatoes - 7.50 Marks
      with fried egg - 14.50 Marks
Viennese roast beef and Bavarian cabbage - 16 Marks
German beefsteak, mixed vegetables and mashed potatoes - 17 Marks
Beef and spinach - 22 Marks
Fried calves liver and spinach - 24 Marks
Braised beef and compote - 26 Marks
German beefsteak with fried egg, mixed vegetables and potatoes - 24 Marks
Pork necks with peas and sweet cabbage - 26 Marks
Cutlet and asparagas spears - 35 Marks
Salt potatoes - 2.50 Marks
Mashed potatoes - 3 Marks

Cold Dishes

Rib chops, garnished - 27 Marks
Meatballs, garnished - 17 Marks
Egg plate, ganished - 8 Marks
Pork roast - 26 Marks
Smoked pork chop - 26 Marks

Cutlets in aspic - 24 Marks
Sardines in oil and salad - 7 Marks
Aspic and remoulade - 6 Marks
Marinaded herring - 5 Marks
Rolled hering - 2.50 Marks
Potato salad - 3 Marks
Del. salad [?] - 6 Marks
Italian salad - 7 Marks
Ox muzzle salad - 8 Marks
Holland cheese - 6 Marks
Pat of butter - 3 Marks
Cranberries - 7 Marks
Plums - 7 Marks
Sour pickles - 2.75 Mark
      in a sandwich - 2.75 Marks
Beerwurst and salad - 10 Marks

June 8, 1922 page 1

Mayor of Buffalo fined for Prohibition Infraction

Buffalo, N.Y. — Mayor Frank X. Schwab recently pleaded guilty in Federal Court for violation of the Prohibition laws and paid a fine of $500. The infractions occurred before Mr. Schwab was elected mayor and during the time he was business manager of the Buffalo Brewing Company. The Internal Revenue Service assessed penalties of $10,000 several months ago.

No further charges will be filed against the brewing company, according to a federal prosecuter.

June 15, 1922 page 7

Men with Red Hair and Long Ears Sought

Authorities of the U.S. Marine Corps are looking for 150 people with red hair and long ears for its radio service. The latter attribute is somewhat understandable since people with long ears may not possess have sharper hearing but may be better suited to the headset. Requests for the former attribute can only be explained as an American presupposition that redheads possess exceptional mental flexibility.

June 15, 1922, page 8

German-American Citizen's Alliance of the United States


The earlier German-American National Alliance, which had to disband because of the war, continued to exist among local groups under various names such as the Steuben Society. It now wishes to reorganize itself under the name D.A.B.B. der Vereinigen Staaten [Deutsche-Amerikanische Bürger Bund = German-American Citizen's Alliance of the United States] and it has issued an invitation to all local society secretaries to come together for a general meeting on the 15th, 16th, and 17th of July in Chicago. We expected this would happen. The D-A Bund of Onondaga County had suspended activities at the time of the National Alliance's dissolution but it had not disbanded as many so erroneously assumed. The time has come for us to step out of retirement in order to pose certain questions which lie closest to the hearts of American citizens of German heritage.

The Pioneer Society had already taken steps. In its last meeting it was unanimously decided to reclaim the personal freedom taken from us during the war through the ballot box. This example should be imitated by all German societies in the city.

Thanks to the efforts of the committee which was unanimously elected at the closing meeting of the local alliance, there was still money on hand which would be used to reestablish a reunification of the earlier members of the Bund.

The first order of business was the arrangement of a meeting in this city. The result of that meeting was the planning of future steps for the reunificaton of the local group. Here is the letter sent to the secretary of the alliance:

Chicago, June 10, 1922.

Dear Mr. Peil!

With renewed efforts all over the country by Americans of German heritage to reunite, the German-American Citizen's Alliance believes it is time to call a general meeting to address some pertinent issues.

To that end a national conference will be organized for the 15th, 16th, and 17th of July in Chicago and we urgently ask you to attend. In our opinion the creation of a nationwide organization and the investigation of the domestic and international problems within the political arena are issues which we can no longer postpone. We believe that a national German-American organization will provide a forum for an ongoing dialog concerning the ways and means, and the procedures and goals for addressing these issues.

In the interest of these fine issues we ask you to participate at this meeting. In the event that you cannot attend would you please send someone from your circle of acquaintances who will have the right to speak in the name of the majority of your membership?

In order to properly prepare for the conference would you please send us word on whether we can count on your attendance?

                                                                                                With German Greetings,
                                                                                                The German-American Citizens Alliance
                                                                                                of the United States
                                                                                                F. Rixmann, Vice-President
                                                                                                A. Lorenz, Secretary

June 22, 1922 page 1

67,697 Germans May Immigrate

Washington, D.C. — In the next fiscal year, which begins July 1st, 357,903 immigrants may land in the United States under the Immigration Law. The number was set by the Department of Labor. This year the count totaled 355,825. Next year's increase comes from the addition of foreign-born people from Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. According to the law, which could be extended for another two years, three percent more of each ethnic group may join the settled ethnic population as it was established by the 1910 Census.

Germany's quota, which for the current year totals 68,039, was reduced to 67,607. 432 fewer Germans may land in the next fiscal year. Immigration Commissioner Husband explained that the reduction is due to annexation of Upper Silesia by Poland. How the gentlemen of the Immigration Service came up with this computation is a secret.

The quotas for the major countries are as follows: Austria 7,451; Belgium, 1,563; Czechoslovakia, 14,357; Germany, 67,697; Italy, 42,057; Norway, 12,202; Poland, 21,076; Rumania, 7,419; Russia, 21,613; Sweden, 20,042; Gret Britain and Ireland, 77,342; Turkey, 2388, Greece, 3,294; Hungary, 5,638; and Denmark, 5,619.

June 22, 1922 page 1

Brewer Busch versus Lasker

St. Louis — The firm Anheuser-Busch denies that the late Adolphus Busch was a close friend of the Kaiser as Chairman Lasker of the Shipping Board maintained in his letter. The firm sent a letter to the Shipping Board refuting Lasker's claim and stated that the Anheuser-Busch Organization has a right "to protest, when the government of the United States bought German beer and sold it on their ships but at the same time would not tolerate the production of American beer."

Washington, D.C. — The Shipping Board is of the opinion that neither the Volstead Act nor the 18th Amendment have anything to do with American shipping since all activities occur outside the three mile limit, Chairman Lasker stated in a letter to Adolphus Busch, the vice-president of Anhäuser-Busch [sic] Brewery Co. in St. Louis.

Mr. Lasker confirmed the reports that American ships at high sea can sell alcoholic drinks and that from the standpoint of legality it is acceptable and in the interest of our national merchant marine.

"The Shipping Board permits it," Mr. Lasker wrote, "and will continue to permit spirited drinks to be served on its ships as long as ships under foreign flags enter our ports and then sail back out."

The letter was a response to a query from Mr. Busch directed to President Harding. The President passed the letter on to Mr. Lasker.

June 22, 1922 page 4

The Significance of Our Song Festival


With the announcement from our mayor, who never failed doing a good deed for certain elements of our city, an invitation was sent to the governor of New York State, who agreed to appear at our festival. And with the acceptance by the State Comptroller, Mr. Wm. J. Maier, the organizers of the Song Festival have completed the first step of their noble mission.

Complete fulfillment of its mission involves clearing the reputation of the German-American, promoting his lofty endeavors, strengthening his sense of identity, and reinforcing his human rights before the whole world.

The far reaching significance of the approaching song festival can only be fully measured by looking back at the events of the war years. However this retrospective is a spiritual journey for us — a journey to Galgatha!

Despite the memories of all the pain and sorrow which we German-Americans experienced due to shameless lies and brutal hatred, dreadful injustice and foul slander, our joy now grows and deepens because we triumphed and people of German heritage in this country can see that this festival is their festival. It took moral fortitude, perseverence, and a strong sense of self-preservation. People of German heritage did not falter. It was a time of sorrow and one may truly say the battle was hard fought, the need was great, the misery was deep and the pain was harsh and even the light of day seemed transformed to darkest night. However once it was recognized that the German element must acknowledge its common destiny without flinching or hesitating, when it fully applies its firm will and endless vigor, it will become victorious again. What were we before the war? We were a worthy people of value to our nation.

This is what the song festival and magnificent performances of our singers shall achieve.

                                                                                                Troy Freie Presse, June 17th.

June 22, 1922 page 6

A Calculation to Contemplate


At a social function a woman once asked Jean Jacques Rousseau what in his opinion were the attributes a young woman must possess in order to make a man happy in marriage. The famous philosopher took a piece of paper and drafted the following list: Beauty, 0; Thriftiness, 0; Intellect, 0; Money, 0; Kind Heartedness, 1. The woman looked up astonished as he handed her the list. "Are you really serious?" she asked. Rousseau nodded. "Certainly," he declared and smiled. "If a young woman has nothing other than a good heart, she would deserve one point. If she had beauty or money, then she'd have 10 points. But if she were also in possession of other good attributes by my estimation she would have 100, or 1000. And if she incorporated many fine qualities the calculation would rise to 10,000. But without a good heart — and you may trust me on this — all the other attributes only amount to a row of zeros."

July 20, 1922 page 7

A Stork as a Greetings Messenger


A stork returning to its nest in Lieskau (Magdeburg District) wore an object around its neck. Someone managed to entice the stork into a barn then pen it up. A small leather pouch was tied around its neck. There was a note inside with this message: "Greetings to the German homeland! Willi Bucha, Farmer in Nowa at Lake Victoria (East Africa). Born February 12, 1897 in Gerdauen, East Prussia."

August 10, 1922 page 5, col. 6

Mr. Hoffmann's Impressions of His Trip


(From the Utica Deutsche Zeitung)

Mr. Henry Hoffmann, who returned a few days ago with his wife from a visit to Germany, spoke with a reporter of this newspaper. He had some interesting things to say about his trip and the many impressions he had while going through France and Germany. Mr. Hoffmann refuted certain assertions he had heard from time to time that Americans traveling in Germany were given a hard time by their beloved German countrymen. Mr. Hoffmann said that to the contrary was true, travel in Germany is comfortable and inexpensive provided one not forget to calculate costs in Marks rather than American dollars and cents. Americans more often than not enter Germany loaded with many or fewer American dollars.

Mr. Hoffmann brought forth many examples to show how inexpensive, and often ridiculously cheap, travel in Germany can be. Often demands are made by Americans which would not be made by the native population. We've also seen this often enough in our own promised land. For example, one time Mr. Hoffmann took a few friends to a first class restaurant. The menu was exceptionally choice and he chose, among other things, roast venison and two bottles of champagne. The price for this scrumptious meal for five including tip came to 950 Marks. Believe it or not, that comes to $2.25 per course. For an eight-hour train journey roughly equal in distance to between Utica and Cleveland, Ohio Mr. Hoffmann paid a measly 80 cents per person for the second class cabin. The trains are good; they're well operated and regular.

Mr. Hoffmann took a trip from Munich to Oberammergau by automobile to see the passion play. He rented the vehicle from 8 in the morning until 5 in the evening. He stopped at the king's castle at Hohenschwangau and Lake Starnberg where the unfortunate King Ludwig lost his life. The cost for this roadtrip for six people was 9000 Marks or $17.00 in American funds. The trip was extremely interesting. It went over the Bavarian Alps. Often there was a view above the low-lying clouds and they spotted lots of the abundant wildlife.

Mr. Hoffmann and his travel companions were extremely impressed by the passion play in Oberammergau. He said that one could not sufficently describe it and one had to see it in order to properly appreciate it. Mr. and Mrs. Hoffmann lodged in Oberammergau at Christus Lang's Brother [?]. They had excellent accommodations. The cost for two people for two nights with meals for the entire stay and admission to the passion play came to 960 Marks, a little over $2.00 for two people.

The evening before his departure was unforgettable as Mr. Hoffmann visited the place of his birth, Heimbach-Weiss. 200 people were Mr. Hoffmann's guests. There were many speeches interchanged with songs. Among the guests were Pastor Weber as well as Mr. Max Hühnemann, a great industrialist of the region, who emphasized that Germany's future lies in the hands of the Americans and it was up to the Americans in attendance to announce this truth to the powers that be across the sea.

Glasses were raised to the health of America and the Americans ten times.


— In a so-called straw poll of 480,000 people conducted by the magaine Literary Digest 196,864 favored lessening restrictions of the Prohibition Law. 101,475 called for its repeal and only 181,704 voted for strict enforcement.

— After ten weeks of silence we received signs of life from the currently traveling in Germany gymnast Heiko Van Lengen, father of Dr. Wm. F. Van Lengen. The postcard sending us greetings was written in Dresden.

August 10, 1922 page 7

A Library in Your Vest Pocket


The English Admiral Bradley A. Fiske has patented an invention which lets a person carry an entire library in his vest pocket. The device, which will bear the trade name “Fiske Reading Machine” consists of a small aluminum strip with a small magnifying glass attached. Paper strips, printed with the help of microphotography and reduced in size by several hundred times, run through the hand-held machine. The magnifying glass placed over the aluminum strip brings the miniature type to normal size so one can read it with ease. Five such strips contain approximately a hundred thousand words, thus producing all the words of the average-sized novel. In this way one can carry many thick books whenever the opportunity arises to do some reading.

August 17, 1922 page 5

Buffalo's Germans


Thousands Attend the German Day Celebration


Buffalo, August 14 — Remembering that they are united in brotherhood and belong to the same tribe which has not forgotten how much they owe to the old fatherland, the Germans of Buffalo, both men and women, gathered in large numbers yesterday at Braun's Park on Genesee St. Despite the streetcar strike 10,000 celebrated German Day for the third time since the world war. And for the third time it was held under the auspices of the united singing societies of Buffalo — Harugari Frohsinn, Männerchor Bavaria and Deutscher Männerchor. Scarcely anyone from the various German societies failed to attend. Those who couldn't come in person sent a delegate.

Mr. Henry W. Brendel greeted the festival participants and gave a speech in which he talked about earlier festivals in honor of German Day. He advised his audience to stick together as a people and to remember that the Germans of this country should and will play a significant role in political and economic issues, provided they remain united as brothers undivided by their differences of opinion. In this manner they will regain their reputation and previously held sphere of influence and if there is another war they will have more of a voice than the Germans of the British Isles.

Mr. Alois Stockmann, the Festival Director, praised German song in his address. He talked about its accomplishments and its meaning for the German people. He implored the audience and the singers to continue singing German songs, to continue speaking the mother tongue, and to remain loyal to the German way of life. German song will smash the underhanded plans of the instigators and the antagonists. At the same time German song pays tribute to the old fatherland.

August 24, 1922 page 7 col. 4-5

The Zips


by Dr. A. Schmidtmayer

The Zips is a region in the Carpathian Mountains. You only learn in school that the highest summit in the Carpathians is called the Gerlsdorf Peak. Many people know that it's 2663 meters high. — Memorizing such high numbers was previously viewed as the tasty seasoning of geographic instruction. — But how often will a listener have the thought that its highly remarkable that here in the Carpathian wildernis where the foxes of Hungary greet the foxes of Poland there's a summit with the German name Gerlsdorf Peak? Is there a village called Gerlsdorf? Yes, there is a German village and a town and an entire German region. This is where the Zips is located.

Germans didn't move recently to the Zips. Quite to the contrary. The Germans of the Zip have been there since the establishment of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Friedrich Raimund Kaindl, former professor at the German University of Czernowitz, diligently resurrected from dusty archives a three-volume history of the Carpathian Germans.

The first Germans came to the Zips from the north. North of the Carpathians is Galicia, the "soul of Poland." — But did they come from there? Back in the Middle Ages Galicia didn't have as uniform a population as it has today. A majority of the population in its towns was German. Only later were Poles the main residents. Many still bear traces in their names of German origin, such as Lancut (Landshut), Lanckorona (Landeskrone), etc. Proud Krakau was primarily German. Until 1312 the council minutes were written exclusively in German. In the 16th century the sermon of the main church service was still conducted in German. The German population was so densely packed north of the Carpathians that Galicia became too small for it. Germans soon spilled over the mountains and into neighboring Hungary then followed the path of the Poprad River to the valleys of the Hernad and the Göllnitz rivers. From there some pushed on to Roden and the forests with their rich mineral deposits. Again the population grew so dense the narrow valleys had no more room and several villages were glued to the side of the mountains like swallows nests. More than 200 German villages were found in the Zips.

Today there is not much left of the old Germans in the Zips. Only 20 communities are German with another 18 with Germans in the majority. All the others were squeezed out by Slavs and Magyars. In 1869 there were 61,361 Germans in the Zips. By 1900 there were only 41,855. Every 30 years the population is reduced by a third.

The main region of the little country, Leutschau has had three large churches since the Middle Ages, including the magnificent cathedral of St. Jacob — today there are far fewer benches filled when the bells call Germans to devotions. They are a people dying out like the Basques in the Pyrennes.

Why must it come to such dying out? Many reasons are working together towards this. The gold and silver in the mines have been exhausted. World trade, which at one time had flourished, has gone down other paths. And what must this small group of people have endured under the domination of the Turks and the Tatars, the Poles and the Magyars! Plus the worst is probably yet to come since the Congress of Versailles tosses people around like marbles in a game. Against the will of the people the residents have been delivered to the newly formed Czechoslovakia. Sapienti sat! [A word to the wise is sufficient!]

Since mining died out the Zips no longer feeds her children, not the Germans and not the Slovaks. The Slovaks put a few tin pots and mouse traps on their back and go around half of Europe as wire menders. They don't earn a lot but they need even less. They always bring back money when they return to the Zips. — The German doesn't carry mouse traps out of the Zips. He deals in another article among the foreign races; another article which even the poorest German often has in abundance—education. Very many German young men of the Zips have studied various subjects. As physicians, engineers and civil servants they fill the ranks in Hungary. You find them with all governments, prized for their knowledge, their dedication to duty, and their diligence. They shine in all fields of science, and they have proven themselves more clever than the Slovakian wire menders.

The student from the Zips studies abroad with Zips money. When he gains employment and reputation he does not return to the Zips. He also doesn't send money home. The farm he inherits he sells or he manages from Budapest while working as an advisory councilor or a professor. And eventually who buys the farm that's gone to seed? — The Slovak fence mender with the money he earned in the mouse trap business.

Yet, from another perspective education has been the undoing of the Zips German. To be a civil servant in Hungary he must look like a Magyar, at least externally. Unfortunately all too often the identity is internalized as well. He sets aside his German name — the two Hunfalvy brothers, for example; the "Fathers of Magyar Scholarship" were called Hundsdorfer when they went to school in Gross Schlagendorf in the Zips. — The Zips German allows his children to the raised as Magyars. In true rengade fashion he surpasses the native Magyars in "cultural assimilation." Now he can no longer be helped. A people is doomed to die out when it forgets its national identity.

Now the Zips will be governed from Prague instead of Budapest. One seldom sees the Prague Minister in Slovakia; the Prague Judge Prosecutor a little more often. The beginning of the new regime seemed promising. When the Czech Zsupan Fabry ceremoniously moved to Eperjes he said: "For a thousand years Hungary was not able to magyarize Slovakia. We will be done with you in two years." What the Magyars left alone in the German school system the Czechs will trample over without mercy. The German gymnasium at Neudorf was closed. In the schools that are left open new classes no longer offer German instruction. The German elementary school has been severely restricted. Poor Zip Germans, for whom the love of learning runs in the blood!

What are they going to do now? Will they curry favor from the Czechs as they had with the Magyars? That's out of the question. They'd garner the scorn of the whole country because the Slovaks hate the Czechs. For good or evil, good Germans from Zip must again become German. The Czechs will pile on more and more rules however the means of force cannot reach within a man's heart. It is inherent in forced government that it always produces the opposite of what it intends.


The Martydom of Wine Tasting


R.L. Guibert, a foremost expert in the field of wines and spirits, discussed the occupational demands of wine selection while in Paris. He indicated that the greater part of his day was spent examining the finest French vintages. "It's dreadfully difficult work," he said, "in no way a pleasant activity, as one might suppose. After tasting 20 wines, especially if they're reds, I always feel sick. Once I've had a series of sips the inside of my mouth feels like a rasp went to work on it and my tongue is hanging out." Guibert never swallows the wine he tastes. After each sip he refreshes his palate with a few drops of ice water. He receives requests for countless bottles containing the finest wines and cordials. Guibert is from the Province of Quebec. As official delegate he travels to Paris in order to test the quality of the spirits sent there for testing. He must taste 3000 various products. He declares this is difficult work, in fact it's truly a form of martydom.


The Flea Trade


A Parisian junk dealer has hung a plaque in his store stating he pays 3 Francs for a hundred living examples of pulex irritans. It seems he's not doing a bad business with these blood suckers. They're used by the makers of insect powder in order to show their customers the excellence of their product while looking for the insects. Within three days a vendor sold 1800 packets.

December 21, 1922 page 16

American Soldiers as Santa Claus

Coblenz — The American soldiers in the Rhineland organized a collection of many millions of Marks in order to provide German children with a true Christmas celebration.

The Rhineland posts of Veterans of Foreign Wars began the collection with 300,000 Marks and each American soldier on the Rhine gave at least the equivalent of one dollar, which is over 8,000 Marks. First sergeants were entrusted with the task of seeing that no soldier was forgotten.

Charitable work has already commenced among the German poor. A number of soup kitchens are already in operation, which is supported primarily by officers. The Veterans' committee is collecting clothing and games which will be placed under the customary Christmas trees of the American troops in Germany.

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Translation by Susan Kriegbaum-Hanks