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Between the World Wars: Articles from the Syracuse Union, available through the New York State Newspaper Project

July-December 1925


July 3, 1925 page 4

How "Huns" Acted

It would be really nice if the Anglo-American newspapers would carry the following paragraph from a letter by a woman from Douai, France to the International Children's Aid Association in Geneva. The association provides food for starving German children:

"Few populations have suffered so much due to the war and the German occupation as the people of Douai. Mothers, who have already expended their widow's mite and have children who suffer from hunger, quake at the thought they they have no milk for their children. They have not forgotten that German soldiers tried to relieve the children's suffering by bringing them food, toys and sweets. This was the case in my own house and it happened more often than people dared to openly discuss. And these people painfully think of the children of these soldiers who might die today in the arms of their mothers. The mothers of Douai wish to thank the committee for enabling them to express their gratitude."

This is how German soldiers behaved in France. In the Rhine and Ruhr districts German children fall victim to French beasts!


July 10, 1925 page 2

The Prehistory of Paper

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A Chinese Invention which gradually established itself in Europe.

Our era has been called the "paper age." Today paper plays a pivotal role in our culture. It serves as the most important educational medium. We learn almost more from print than from life but we need to guard against total reliance on the printed word. Life without paper might seem unthinkable however we must consider that thousands of years went by without it. The history of paper in Europe is relatively recent, having been adopted as a medium around the 14th century. However the invention of paper has a long prehistory obscured in a darker past than just about any other invention and only new research has revealed. The "Prehistory of Paper" is a section in the book The Influence of the Far East on the West written by the Orientalist Georg Jacob. In this content-rich volume he discusses the significant influence of the Orient in several aspects of European culture. In antiquity we only had parchment and papyrus, which were difficult to make and therefore very expensive. In the varied regions of the world man attempted to replace these with less expensive alternatives. Richard Andree correctly noted: "Paper was invented in more than one place, even in America where it was manufactured from agave and found in libraries containing Mexican illustrated manuscripts." Central Asia had entire libraries made from birch bark. South Indian manuscripts were usually made from palm leaves. The Chinese originally used bamboo stalks. But all these materials were not suited for use on printing presses. It was only the Chinese who produced a material which the rest of the world adopted.

Around 100 years before Christ the director of the Imperial Weapon Factory, Ts'ai Lun, made his immortal invention, which became the greatest catalyst for human culture. The high cost of silk and the difficulty in handling bamboo led him to create a new writing material made from tree bark, hemp, rags and old fishing nets. Paper was concocted from various plant fibers cleaned by different agents, then mixed together in liquid and dried in thin layers. The great significance of Ts'ai Lun's invention was recognized during his lifetime. A few years later he was honored by imperial decree. His house and the stone which served as the base for pressing the paper were long considered famous tourist attractions. From Arab sources we learned that paper manufacturing was brought to Samarkand around the 8th century by Chinese prisoners of war. Excavation in Chinese Turkestan has given us the oldest specimens of paper to date. The Berlin Museum for Ethnology owns the oldest piece of paper from around the year 399. It's made of Chinese grass, a nettle-like family of plants mixed with paper mulberry. The texture is similar to rag paper. Of further interest was the discovery of Chinese documents from the years 782 and 787 in the Taklamakan Desert. The paper was brought from Samarkand to Baghdad during the reign of Harun-al-Raschid between 794 and 795. Soon after it was manufactured in all Islamic lands and in Spain. The museum of Archduke Rainer owns two Arabic letters on rag paper from around 800 A.D. which may well have come from the first Baghdad paper factory. It certainly decreased the manufacture of paper from papyrus throughout the west. One can follow the expansion of paper usage from Egyptian documents found in Faiyum dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries. By the beginning of the 11th century new material was already being developed. Research into this ancient paper reveals that there had never before been paper made from cotton though there had been much discussion about it. There was mention of paper made from linen and the Arabic and Chinese paper makers used sizing to stiffen the paper. This was a technique later rediscovered in the west. In the 12th century paper from the Arabic lands was introduced in the Romance countries. It arrived in Germany during the 14th century.


July 17, 1925 page 5

Sensation Murder of a Deserter

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Philip Knapp, Son of a Rich Syracuse Resident, being sought throughout the Entire State

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The police of Nassau County and the authorities of the U.S. Army have been looking for days for Philip Knapp, a deserter from Mitchel Air Force Base. Thrill seeking like Leopold and Loeb in Chicago, Knapp murdered a young man with dreadful and incomprehensible cold bloodedness. The victim was taxicab driver Louis Penello of Hempstead, a hard-working young father whom Knapp had never seen before. Letters from Knapp's own hand to his father William W. Knapp, a rich and prominent man living at 209 Lincoln Park Drive in Syracuse, N.Y., and to superior officer, were found in a barracks building. By their wording it was evident that Knapp had developed this crazy idea a few years after suffering a fractured skull. On the evening of July 3rd, driven by his unhealthy desire for thrill seeking, he deserted in civilian clothing. Thoughts of suicide, of which he was unable to free himself, became deranged thoughts of murder.

In Hempstead he hired a Buick Touring Car driven by the previously unknown to him driver Louis Penella, who was a young married man and father of two children. Along the way Knapp had the idea of shooting the harmless taxi driver to death with the revolver he'd taken from the barracks then bury the unfortunate owner of the car under the pile of cement near Hempstead. The body was found on July 4th. A shot to the back of the head had gone through the mouth.

As was further established, Knapp drove Penella's car and assumed his name on July 4th and 5th. He arrived on Long Island without a plan but subsequently pasted his own photograph over the one on Penella's driver's license. On July 6th he sold the car for $1000 to Broadway Sales Co. and received a $100 check in deposit, which he cashed at the Pacific Bank at 47th St, and 7th Ave. in Manhattan. The next day he failed to pick up the other $900 since the report of the discovery of the murdered man had already made it to the newspapers.

Knapp's desertion was first noticed on July 7th since he had received a three-day furlough. His belongings were search, as way customary under the circumstances, and the above-mentioned letters were found. They had been carefully drafted and rewritten.

In Syracuse Knapp was considered the black sheep of a respected family. He boasted that he had been expelled from Cornell and Syracuse University for disciplinary reasons and he often made secret road trips. After serving in the Navy during the war he studied mechanical engineering.

The deserter and murderer has not been found to this point despite information being spread throughout the country including the airlines. Knapp has been seen in various regions and a few false arrests have already been made.

Having said this, it's only a matter of time before the young man will be apprehended and begin serving his sentence.

Knapp was reportedly seen in Syracuse on July 6th when he went to the house of his betrothed, Ruth "Peggy" Stark of 219 Gertrude St. She was not home at the time. Her 74-year-old mother, who recognized him, declared that Knapp left the house quickly once he found out that Ruth was not at home.

The search for the murderer will continue especially due to the sensational nature of the crime. The entire Canadian border will be sharply guarded. Miss Stark declared that she probably would have followed Knapp if she had seen him and had been asked to follow him.


July 24, 1925 page 1

Great Joy in the Ruhr District

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Düsseldorf, the Surrounding Region to the Ruhr Valley, and Duisburg also abandonned by the Allied Forces

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Berlin, July 22 — Recklinghausen, Gladbach, Herne and Hattingen were evacuated by French and Belgian forces on Saturday; Bochum and Gelsenkirchen on Sunday. In a few days foreign occupation will be withdrawn in Essen and Mühlheim as will the Ruhr District, which was taken under the control of Poincaré and the French and Belgians in January 1923 because of its rich coal deposits. This way Germany would fulfill its duties as specified under the Versaille Treaty. However occupying this region created a sore spot for the rest of Europe so it has been released relatively quickly. The withdrawal of troops occurred very quietly. They marched off each morning before daybreak, giving the populace no opportunity to demonstrate. They crossed the Rhine into the region designated for occupation under the Versaille Treaty.

The last French-Morrocan regiments stationed in the Ruhr withdrew from the occupied region on Monday.

Düsseldorf, the Ruhr District, and Duisburg, whose occupation was designated as "sanctioned", are still in the hands of French and Belgian forces. These areas could still be occupated in accordance with the March 1924 London Accord until Germany met its obligation under the Dawes Plan. According to assurances by the two governments both countries will withdraw on August 15th.

Today all civilians belonging to the occupation forces will leave German soil. From July 31st to August 15th only a police presence will maintain the occupation. Then the German police will take control. Only the Cologne Bridgehead will remain in foreign hands.

In all towns and villages in the Ruhr Valley liberation celebrations were organized. Bells clanged boldly and trumpets blared mightily from church towers to shout out the happy news. The countless factories in the industrial-rich German region rang their shrill sirens and massive groups of jubilant people sang songs of the fatherland. Among the joyous populace a steady stream of warm greetings, best wishes and hand shaking prevailed.


July 31, 1925 page 2

Intoxicating Drinks in the Life of Populations

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A Cultural and Historical Study Concerning Fermented Drinks

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By Chemical Engineer H.A. Kirsch

There are few populations which have not found means to prepare stimulating or intoxicating drinks which either dissipate fatigue, seemingly raise energy levels, or fortify courage during dangerous moments. Less sophisticated, scatteredgroups regularly chew dry leaves or roots but settled groups which conduct farming and grow grains brew intoxicating drinks.

Nomadic tribes use the milk from their livestock herds as the basis for their favorite drinks. This has been going on for a long time and it is still used today by the Mongolian and Tartar populations for Kumys Kefir. Herodotus described the process used by the ancient Scythians for their beloved Kumys: "After they milk the mare, they pour it into wooden tubs. Blind servants stir the milk. What rises to the top is considered the best product. What settles to the bottom is considered the poorest product."

A similar drink is made from cow's milk and is processed like Scythian Kefir. The Afghans make a similar drink from sheep's milk. In Iceland sheep's milk was preserved in vats. It wass consumered after it ferments.

As reported by the old seafarer Pythias, a drink prepared from fermented honey and water was a favorite among the Anglo Saxons and residents of the Baltic rim. Today in Russia and other Slavic countries they still imbibe this nordic drink, which was also well known to the Greeks and Romans under the name "hydromel."

In the earliest time highly advanced populations grew grains, thus we may anticipate that they produced beer. In fact among the Egyptians we find that as a highly advanced agricultural people they produced a barley beer called "Zythos" which was known far and wide. However instead of using aromatic hops the Egyptians and all other beer brewing groups used a different bitter ingredient such as lupine.

The beer that Odin and his heros in Valhalla guzzled corresponds to the drink of our ancestors. Due to the lack of hops it was sweet and flat. Tacitus wrote: "Their drink is a liquid made of barley or spice. It is a brew with a certain similarity to bad wine."

Of course, in the early days people tried to remedy the lack of potency and flavor. They investigated every possible additive from juniper berries to black carrot seeds. It wasn't until the time of the Carolingians that people began sowing plant gardens, and thus handing down the use of hops to us.

And so the marvelous drink developed from its humble beginnings as one of starchy consistency brought to a boil with heated stones. It is still available in beer mugs in Carinthia and other places brought up to today's standards by fermentation. In the Far East the Chinese and Japanese possess a particular drink from rice with the addition of a sourdough yeast attributed to the first rulers around 3000 years before Christ. The common folk had a drink made from millet called Kaoliang, which is somewhere between beer and brandywine or whisky mixed with flat lemonade. A drink made of dark millet called "Pombe" is made in Africa.

In India "Samoa Beer" was consecrated in the Vedas and created by the god Indra. Its production was rather intricate. By the waning of the moon so-called moon plants were gathered and brought to the house in a wagon pulled by rams. There the stems were crushed between stones and the juice filtered through goat hair, which is then pressed by gold ringed index fingers. Finally the juice was mixed with barley and clarified butter and left to ferment.

A drink similar to Samoa Beer was "Pulque" from the American "Tloe." [???] It was a sacred drink of the ancient Mexicans. Today it is made of sugar cane and ground up fruit of a pineapple species and may be related to "Tepache."

The North American Indians were unaware of intoxicating drinks until the arrival of the Europeans. However today the Apaches and other tribes make a drink from Agave, a pear cactus and relative of the yucca. They also make a variety of intoxicating drinks from corn. The South Americans produced a drink from corn, nationally designated as "Chica." It was fermented when women chewed it.

Fermentation through mastication was a common practice among less advanced races across the entire South American continent and among the island groups in the Pacific Ocean, where "Kawa," a well-known drink was prepared from the root of a variety of pepper.

Where palms flourish the inhabitants made a favorite palm wine called "Tari" or "Toddy." According to Herodotus by 500 B.C. the Lydians, residents of fortunate Arabia, distilled their palm wines up until Stralo's [Strabo's???] time.

Understandably in the lands where grapes flourished wine dominated. It was similarly valued by the Hebrews, Persians and Egyptians as well as the Greeks and the Romans. It's remarkable that Mohammad permitted the faithful to enjoy the earthly pleasure of having multiple wives yet denied them a glass of wine and subsequently banished viniculture.

In the orient wine, like the Kumys of the Scythians and Tartars, was preserved in animal skins which were internally sealed with pitch. This preservation technique was also used in Greece and Rome. Once skins were replaced by earthenware jugs these too were sealed with pitch. As a rule pitch was used to preserve the drink's traditional flavor.

In Germany viniculture is significantly older than people usually assume. It dates sometime before the time of Emperor Probus (276 - 282.) Assuredly it may be assumed that the Celtic Rhinelanders, who according to Strabo were also the inventors of wooden barrels, had already practiced viniculture long before our time reckoning. However to favor Roman agrarians Emperor Domitian had stifled the Celt's wine production. It wasn't until Probus became emperor that the Celts could make wine again.

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Expansion of American High Finance in Germany

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In an earlier issue we already reported that American financial institutions have become involved in the German banks, which exercise control over credit extended to Germany. The Hallesche Effekten und Wechselbank A.G, whose stock majority is in American hands, has now become the Deutsch-Amerikanische Bank A.G. [German-American Bank, Inc.] and has moved to Berlin. Capital stock shares have increased from 200,000 to 4,200,000. Voting rights for common stock have grown twentyfold so that the majority voice is maintained by American financial entities.

This bank also has the task of issuing bonds to German industries. American high finance uses German industies' capital shortages to expand its power base. Gold reserves, which are stored tax-free in America, strive to gain profit. It's understandable gold owners plan to place their gold where it will make the greatest profit. The burden on German industry caused by war reparations will create financial difficulties for many enterprises. American creditors will have several opportunities to corner the market on German resources at a reduced cost. The burden of war reparations will naturally be reduced with these purchases.

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Degreasing Regimen: As needed, take some time off once each year from those who value your service.


August 14, 1925 page 2

Brew-Ha-Ha!

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In the 14th and 15th centuries in Bavaria there was no beer tax. In the greater cities the largest number of wonderful beers of that time cost two pennies in the winter and six pennies in the summer. In the countryside households brewed their own beer as did urban workmen and the middle class. If the family father or mother did not possess the fine knowledge of brewing, traveling beer handlers called "Schrollen" brought beer in autumn and spring.

For the first time in the 16th century it was decided to levy a tax of the national drink. In 1541 during the reign of Emperor Karl V war with the Turks broke out. The emperor sent troops to Algiers. As a prince of the empire Duke Wilhelm of Bavaria not only sent an army of knights and their armed servants but also levied a tax of 60,000 Guilders to cover the war costs. To raise this extraordinaily large sum for its time, the Duke placed a surcharge on beer, which was never abolished. Thus to this day the beer drinking world is responsible for a tax which makes this noble drink much more expensive for the drinker, who in turn blames the Turks—"Bier-Krutzitürken [To beer, and a curse on the Turks!]


August 14, 1925 page 4

After 35 Years at the Utica Deutsche Zeitung [Utica German Newspaper] Mr. Otto Poepel searches for a New Sphere of Activity

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After working for 35 years at the Utica Deutsche Zeitung, the last 20 of which he has been editor and applied his best efforts maintaining that newspaper, Mr. Otto Poepel finds it necessary to lay down his quill. He is a well-known and respected resident of this city who did much for the benefit of the German community during both war and peace time. He's looking for a different and financially more promising field of endeavor. His many friends wish him good luck.

The Utica Deutsche Zeitung wrote the following article to its readership in the last issue:

"Mr. Otto Poepel, long time editor of this newspaper, has ended his 35 year employment for the Utica Deutsche Zeitung in order to seek a new sphere of activity which has presented itself to him. Mr. Poepel is sad to leave this position which represents years of beloved and cherished service — and indeed the duties became second nature to him. His work with the publishers and the German community of Utica and surrounding area have made these the best years of his life. Risking his happiness to chase after his fortune, it is necessity which leads him to seek new employment. In farewell Mr. Poepel wishes to thank all those, with whom he came in contact while employed at the newspaper, for their goodwill, their friendship, and their patience. He offers his best wishes for their continued wellbeing. Mr. Richard Henschke, former business manager of the Utica Co-operative Society, takes over as editor of the newspaper with this current issue."


August 21, 1925 page 7

The Mountain without a Railroad

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A Satire about the Future in the Year 1995, by Julius Kreis

It was the year 1995. On the ground and above it railroad tracks, conduction wires, cables, and antennas glistened and glittered. Pylons rose up every square block. Skyscrapers were as imposing as their company's owners. Each simple man had his own aircraft and despite vehement protests from sky congestion reformers, the sky was continually getting busier thanks to large airline owners. Farmers had disappeared long ago due to the manufacturing of proteins and carbohydrates. They now worked in the chemical factories. The last streams had been harnessed and transformed into horsepower. Every mountain had an electric railroad surrounding it but the tourists usually preferred landing at the airport. The mountain faces had terraces equipped with tracks and cables with giant power generators at their bases. Hotel upon hotel rose up to the summits, twenty-four floor high buildings with tennis courts, palm gardens and hangars. There was a bar at the summit where the jazz bands played above the glaciers until dawn. At the center of the large and comfortably appointed mountain was a small section, the only part of the mountain still left untouched by the railroad. It had been abandoned and forgotten a long time ago and no one cared about it. One day the enterprising magnate Nulpe discovered it. Man! What a great idea! — Here is an original piece of the old mountain magic!

Soon afterwards the project was in motion. A corporation purchased the small tract of land. A cement wall was built around the area. At the gate one paid 3 Marks to enter. Students paid half price. Nulpe organized everything beautifully. His consultant, dance master Striesecke from the Berlin Ballroom, worked hand in hand with him. The newspapers published long, enthusiastic reports about the opening of the "Original Mountain and Summit Exhibition, Inc." They praised the warm, spicy smell of the grounds as much as the enrichment of the homeland by this down-to-earth natural landmark.

There was an 16 foot electric sign above the gate consisting of red and green lights spelling out "Holdio" [Shout of Joy.] The sign burned all night long. Visitors were greeted at the entrance with a down home "God's Blessing, Buddy (or M'Lady) by one of Nulpe's employees, who was dressed in original mountaineer costume provided by Wieringer's Costume House. Acting as a guide the employee performed a folk dance known as the "Schuhplattler" during an intermission. Lovely alpine girls, dairy maids and herd women from North Berlin, Moabit and New Cologne with blonde and brown bobbed hair amicably shouted to the passers-by from their alpine huts "Do you want to shoot, young man?" If the man came nearer he could go to a firing range and take a shot at a genuine stuffed goat-antelope. For an additional payment of 5 Marks a genuine poacher appeared in a beautiful arrangement of rocks. Unseen, of course, because he was behind a tree, the poacher shot at the mountain guest. For refreshments and rations along the way one could procure from the alpine maidens cocaine packets made attractive with a vial of gentian or cowbells. On the packaging between alpenrose and edelweiss it reads "Greetings from Zell in Bavaria."

A mountain costume company had been organized for visitors who wished to rent mountain clothing by the day. Yodeler vending machines had been set up everywhere along the way. If someone tossed in a coin a yodeler came out. The sound attracted genuine alpine grass-fed cattle, which had been created by the premiere preparation firms following pictures of this extinct animal and produced in their original size. Each specimen had a loud speaker in its mouth which broadcast cattle braying and melodical herd noises from a Munich transmission station during the business hours. The program was called "A Quarter Hour of Cattle Noises."

A Rural Theater, in which prominent Berlin actors performed, imparted partly entertaining, partly instructive insights into spiritual life of the simple mountain folk. The portrayer of Wurzelsepp was unforgettable. Director Salomon Krotoschiner as a guest from Posen gave a true to nature performance. Even Lu Pazi, the grand film diva, in her scene "The Abandonned Alpine Maiden at the Roadside Cross" was as unforgettable as the originally staged scene might have been.

The scent of Edelweiss grown in their own greenhouses was intoxicating. Practically every kind of perfume was produced from alpine flowers in imitation of perfumes such as Tai Tai and Kashana. Every Sunday at dawn a genuine black jazzband in upper Bavarian mountain costume played "Das ist der Tag des Herrn" [This is the Day of the Lord] with ten saxophones. At dusk on Sunday it played "Geh mach dei Fensterl auf" [Go, Open your Window.]

At the summit in a weather-tight glass case the true to nature replica of an alpine native from the year 1910 stands with rucksack, alpine stock and spiked boots. In the brochure he was described as a curiosity because this man had reached the summit on foot.

"Dear children," teachers explained to their students, "here stands a man from the past, whom you might have heard of during our lessons on radio history. This is the German mountain climber."

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The Man who burgled His Own Castle

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The deeds of the infamous Gentleman Cat Burgler and the Dürre Second Story Gang are currently keeping the Charlottenburg courts busy. After a majority of the criminals were sentenced, additional charges were filed against another portion of the gang, some thieves and some fences, which will result in many more days in trial proceedings. Among the accused is former lieutenant and current merchant Wilhelm von Keudell, the son of past supreme grand marshal to the former Kaiser. He slide down a steep slope and became a cat burgler. Keudell was sentenced to two years imprisonment, which he has already served. Currently he is being held in Dresden for nine months for desertion.

This time he's accused of taking part in a burglery in the castle of his father, who was knighted and dubbed Lord Chamberlain and Baron von Keudell of Schwedda near Eschwege. Of interest concerning this charge, which was filed at the district court in Kassel and will be transferred over to Berlin, is that the accused broke into his own property and after the death of his father he inherited the estate. He faces a new series of court proceedings as the family tries to nullify his rights of inheritance to control the estate and turn the administration over to an attorney while he is in prison. Von Keudell is accused of breaking into the castle along with unknown accomplices on the Sunday before Advent in 1922. Many valuable carpets were stolen. Keudell denied the deed, however he visited the family estate the day before. He had the castellan guide him through the castle and he saw the carpets. Von Keudell's mental state will be thoroughly assessed. All other open cases against him concern crimes in other places. Most members of the gang have been sentenced and will be taken out of prisons or other houses of discipline and introduced as witnesses. Primarily the fences will be questioned.

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Historic Advertisement

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Some time ago the following advertisement was published in large American newspapers:

"Anyone who sends in 25 cents will received a 50 cent postage stamp. (Here the address was given.)"

Very many people sent in their 25 cents to the address. Immediately afterwards they received a new, unused postage stamp for 50 cents.

Then a new newspaper advertisement appeared:
"Anyone who sends in 50 cents will receive a 75 cent postage stamp."

Thousands sent in 50 cents and received a new, unused, genuine 75 cent postage stamp through the mail.

A rumor circulated that an excentric millionaire was selling postage stamps at reduced prices. Everyone kept looking for the next advertisement. They didn't have to wait long:
"Anyone who sends in 75 cents will receive a postage stamp for one dollar."

Hundreds of thousands sent in 75 cents — but the postage stamps for a dollar never arrived!


August 28, 1925 page 9

From the German Community in Siberia

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Der Landmann [The Countryman,] the Communist newspaper of Siberia, has published in its last issue from Omsk - Number 20 of Mai 28, 1925. The operation will move to Nowo Nikolajewsk. According to the publishers, production of the newspaper will be less expensive there and more importantly, in the future the paper will be published twice weekly. Moreover, with the redistricting of Siberia the move to Nowo Nikolajewsk means the newspaper is now in the center of the province.

Along with the article came some interesting figures concerning the German Community in Siberia. In the government region of Irkutsk there are 2065 Germans; in Jenissei 6281; in Smolinsk 30,000; and in Semipalatinsk 36,000.

The newspaper reports that those people who collect the most subscription receive two premiums, one consisting of writing paper, writing quills, pencils and ink. The other premium allows their subscribers to take part in a lottery in which 10 prizes (shirting, children's shoes, writing materials, twine, needles, etc.) are distributed. The gem of the prizes is a library of 50 volumes donated by the Communist Party of Germany.


September 4, 1925 page 2

Grand Lodge Meeting of the
German Order of the Harugari

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In Utica, N.Y. Beautiful Weather Closes Last Friday Night's Session

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Frank Schoeck of Syracuse elected Grand Treasurer; Mrs. Mathilde Hermann of Syracuse appointed Grand Leader of the Ladies' Lodge.

Next Grand Meeting will be held in Buffalo.
German Watch Lodge wins First Prize.

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"It took a world full of opponents to break the German war machine, which threatened world-wide destruction. However German intellect, German charity and German loyalty, like that practiced by the Harugari, could never be broken!"

With these words the official program of the Convention Committee greeted the delegates to the Grand Lodge Meeting of the German Order of the Harugari of New York State, held in Utica on August 26th through 28th. The weather was fine as about 100 delegates and many more guests from around the state in attendance found welcome reception to the convention city.

Zion Hall, festively decorated with the Stars and Stripes and black, white, and red flags, was the site of the cordial gathering which gave delegates the opportunity to get to know each other.

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Caption under portrait at upper left column: Eugene Ullmicher, New York, United States Superior Grand Bard.

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On Thursday morning the meeting of the grand lodge was opened at 9:30 by Grand Bard Adam Hunsinger.

Grand Supervisor Andrew König gave the welcoming address in the name of the Utica Lodge. Mayor Fred Gillmore, who was unable to attend, sent Corporation Counsel J. Herbert Gillroy to greet the delegates to the city. He invited all delegates to visit Mayor Gillmore at City Hall and he gave the convention the key to the city.

Former Grand Bards Fred Heurath of Buffalo and Ludwig Trage of Syracuse bestowed the rank of Bard Emeriti to Mrs. Elizabeth Luthers and Mrs. Christine Klein of College Point; Mrs. Anna Diehl of New York; Mrs. Catherine Martin and Mrs. Anna Birkel of Utica; and Mr. Walter E. Mossdorf of Syracuse. After this came the report of the Grand Officers of the State. Mr. Curt Reichert composed and read a welcoming greeting to 74-year-old Grand Bard Adam Hunsinger. It elicited great applause and tears of emotion and gratitude in the eyes of the recipient.

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Caption under portrait at lower left column: Konrad Staats, New York, Grand Bard.

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At 12:30 the meeting adjourned. Delegates and friends sat down to an excellent meal prepared and served in genuine, good German style by sisters of the Harugari.

At 2 P.M. the meeting was reopened and business was discussed. In the interval Superior Grand Bard Eugene Ullmicher of New York, escorted by the former Grand Bards, arrived and was introduced to the delegates by Grand Marshall Fritz Kellermann.

The afternoon session lasted until 4 P.M. Important business came up for consideration. A delicate point regarded reserve funds, which had already stirred up much bad blood at the last grand lodge meeting. The matter came up for discussion again and stimulated a long and heated debate, which was finally tabled until Friday morning, after which the meeting was adjourned.

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Caption under portrait at upper right: Andrew König, Utica, Deputy Grand Bard

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The afternoon session closed with an interesting auto round trip. Around 30 cars decorated with flags and escorted by police on motorcycles, drove the delegates and friends through the lovely streets and boulevards of the city while at the same time giving a beautiful far-off view of the Mohawk Valley. This was all to honor the visitors in their finest clothes. Bright sunshine added to the enchantment. The trip started and ended at the Zion Hall. Upon their return solid and fluid refreshments were served.

In the evening at 8 there was a get together followed by a dance in which delegates and guests took part and for whom the hall proved far too small. The get together included the introduction of ten new initiates seeking membership followed by inauguration by the staff of the Syracuse August Lodge, which had arrived in Utica via omnibus. The inauguration and the following drill demonstrations under the leadership of Drill Mistress M. Herman were perfect and made a powerful impression upon all those present. The endless applause was well deserved.

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Caption under portrait at lower right: Gottlieb Frank, Buffalo, Grand Secretary

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A marvelous basket of flowers, donated by the Initiation Branch of the Lodge to the Inauguration Branch of the Lodge and a beautiful bouquet of flowers for the Drill Mistess certainly rewarded the Syracuse Inauguration Lodge for its efforts.

First rate piano and song recitals plus dance demonstrations followed, then Brother Walter E. Mossdorf of Syracuse entertained those present with a small humorous performance. By the end of the dance party everyone went off to their sleeping quarters well satisfied.

The delegates had mixed feelings as they assembled for the Friday afternoon session. More heated debates continued from the day before concerning the Reserve Funds. Former Grand Bard Ludwig Trage of Syracuse immediately made a proposal which was accepted after a few minutes to the satisfaction of all. Thus the matter was put to rest for another year and the Reserve Funds remained as they were.

(Continution on Page 8.)

Grand Lodge Meeting of the German Order of the Harugari

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Continuation from Page 2

The German Watch Lodge of Syracuse was awarded the first prize and the Augusta Lodge of Poughkeepsie received the second prize for the greatest increase in membership. The practice of awarding prizes will be suspended for next year.

Yearly reports of the various officers were read and all were gratefully accepted. Many letters from former grand bards, who were unable to attend due to illness or other reasons, were also read. After finishing all other business the election of officers took place quickly and pleasantly.

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Caption under portrait at upper left: Frank Schoeck, Syracuse, Grand Treasurer

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To fill the position of Grand Bard of Syracuse due to the departure of Adam Hunsinger Mr. Konrad Staats of New York was elected.

Mr. Andrew König of Utica was elected Deputy Grand Bard.

Mr. Gustav Loesch of Buffalo was elected Grand Supervisor.

Mr. Gottl. Frank of Buffalo, who has been Grand Secretary of the State for 19 years, was reelected.

Mr. Frank Schoeck of Syracuse was appointed Grand Treasurer a few months ago. He was unanimously elected to the position with great enthusiasm.

It was resolved to hold the next Statewide Grand Lodge Meeting in Buffalo in 1926.

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Caption under portrait at lower left: Mrs. Mathilde Hermann, Statewide Ladies Grand Leader

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The installation of new officers took place at the afternoon session with Superior Grand Bard Ullmicher of New York presiding. Sister Mathilde Hermann of Syracuse was among the newly appointed Grand Bards. She had the honor of being appointed Ladies Grand Leader.

The convention ended that evening with a banquet and dance. Naturally there was no lack of oratory.

All in all the 1925 Convention was truly interesting. The delegates hoped to see one another next year in Buffalo.

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Visiting Lyons, N.Y.

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The Men's Union of the First Evangelical Church at 823 Park St. in Syracuse organized an auto trip to Lyons, N.Y. for Sunday, August 23rd. They attended church service and Sunday school at the Evangelical Church of Lyons. The church's preacher, Rev. Holzwarth, is a former resident of Syracuse. His father served as preacher of the Salem Church at the corner of State and Laurel Sts. in Syracuse. Around 60 people took part. The group brought lunch with them but the hardworking ladies of the Lyons congregation supplied a large,beautiful table on the lawn near the church and served the Syracuse guests coffee to their hearts content. All had an enjoyable and blessed day.

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Echoes from the Harugari Convention in Utica

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Syracuse was especially strongly represented, and not the least by the gentle sex.

The installation committee created an honorary title for Sister Hermann of Syracuse relating not just to Utica but to the whole state.

Former Grand Bard Adam Hunsinger received a magnificent token for his service.

Among the female delegates there were many lovely Harugaris, which until lately had been sadly overlooked.

The lodges of Utica have demonstrated that they truly know how to show hospitality.

Deputy Grand Bard Andrew König will thank God that "it's all over."

Brother Kuhl of Buffalo must return home without the desired Grand Supervisor title. This could also apply to other people.

Brother Frank Schoeck of Syracuse, who was elected Grand Treasurer, is racking his brain to figure out where to deposit the Order's money.

Superior Grand Bard Eugene Ullmicher of New York seems unable to tolerate Utica drinks.

Sister B. Schadte of Yonkers proposed that younger delegates should be sent to the conventions. People who know this lovely young delegate will understand why.

She chose the Syracuse Union writer to share her table at the banquet.

Carl Dannhauser of Dolgeville also said a few fine words in greeting to the Harugaris in the name of the Staatszeitung during the banquet.

Later on he [Dannhauser] was again unable to find the Union writer, so he had to take responsibility for his table mate.

Most Harugaris from Syracuse were accompanied by their better halves. They seemed not to trust their men — or perhaps they were more loved than they were worth.

No fewer than seven former grand bards were at the convention, among them Mr. Adam Metzger of Syracuse who will soon celebrate his 85th birthday. Former Grand Bard Schneider of Syracuse was conspicuous by his absence.

The Harugari sisters of Utica are true artists. The food they prepared was excellent.

A smile covered the face of Brother Klink of Syracuse as his lodge (The German Wachtloge [Watch Lodge]) took first prize. He could have slapped his own chest and said, "You have me to thank." He also proved that he had not lost his voice since last year's meeting.

Sister Waldkirch and Brother Laass of Syracuse received honorable mention during the assembly. They have been assured of a commendation from the Grand Secretary.

Buffalo has promised to offer the best at next year's convention — We hope it's so.

D.D.G.D.A. König was elected Deputy Grand Bard. Soon he'll have so many letters before his name that it would make a king jealous.

All greatly enjoyed Utica and its surrounding area, and to no less a degree its German populace.

If the beer had been better our praise would have had no boundries.

The Utica Deutsche Zeitung has demonstrated it's efficiency. At the close of the meeting a number of newspapers were distributed which carried the report of the convention with pictures of the elected officials. Something a younger editor could not accomplish! Every Harugari should subscribe to this newspaper.

Konrad Staats became State Grand Bard — a statewide champion!

The German language could be heard all over Utica again. One could know he was in a German hotel when he awoke in the morning and go with the delegates to the meeting — but on the night of the return home things were just that much sadder.

Former Grand Bard Trage was again a Harugari in the fullest sense of the word. May he remain so in the future.

Grand Secretary Frank of Buffalo seems especially favored by the ladies — he was reelected for the 20th time.

All delegates seemed to understand the duty of a reporter. Paper and pencils played a great role.

Gottlieb Fassler functioned as toastmaster in his well-known and capable way — only now the toastees have to drink coffee.


September 4, 1925 page 4

On September 13th Standard Time Returns

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The earlier time, which people are accustomed to, will soon replace Daylight Savings Time. On September 13th here in Syracuse we will once again set our watches back one hour, which means we'll get to sleep an hour later the next morning. Originally Daylight Savings Time was supposed to be observed until September 15th however it has been suspeneded early because the New York State Fair starts on the 13th and officials wish to avoid awkwardness and confusion. Thank God!

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To All Germans in North and South America

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To Germans, who have never forgotten their old fatherland! — —

The dreadful event of the World War not only divided the people but also inflicted deep wounds which are still bleeding for the sons of the fatherland. It has also brought new awareness to the bond of all German brothers throughout the world. A stream of loving feelings from our German-American brothers bathed us. Everywhere it echoed: We have not forgotten you. We never wanted to do this! We care about you and want to help you whereever and however we can!

We will never forget to be grateful! However, if we can summon the courage to constantly ask for more, do not resent us from across the ocean. Many wounds still silently bleed. We're surrounded by damages of war, which have disrupted life and limb, deprived us a crust of bread and sunlit, habitable home. No jobs, no housing, dark clouds obscure the sky. Once singing and loyal followers of the fatherland driven to heated battle. Should it remain so? Shouldn't this be a bitter indictment for all Germans if they are not helped? And they should be helped! The "Thank a German Warrior Association" in Southern Germany is there to address war damages and build a sunny home in beautiful Welzheimer Forest. We've already helped beloved, warm-hearted friends to overcome their difficulties getting started. However that's not enough. In order to create a proper settlement for this convalescent home and make it worthy of our war-ravaged Germans in South Germany we must bring in more donations. Why do we say "must?" It should not be a firm "must." We would happily come together with others to help and we would call our German brothers in the United States. Help us! Don't grow weary! Extend a German gift for German men, for German warriors who want to overcome their injuries and illnesses, who waged war for their beloved fatherland. A loving hand from North America has already donated the initial funding. We gratefully hope that others will follow and wait for a powerful echo to this appeal from everyone who has German heart and Christian charity. Let's build a worthy memorial in gratitude and brotherly love. The editorial staff of this newspaper will accept donations and send them to us. Warm and heartfelt gratitude to all who understand us and help.

Signed witn German greetings,
General v. Ebbingshaus, Stuttgart, Ottastr. 1.1, Chairman
Prof. Wilh. Müller, Korntal, 2, Chairman
First Secretary Fr. Kellhammer, Degerloch, Chairman of the Social Work Committee
Writer E. Schreiner, Korntal, Committee Member
Association Secretary Chr. Eppler, Stuttgart, Relenbergstrasse 74.

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Kappel. Lone miner Emil Bürkle of Mannheim, who was employed at the Black Forest Ore Mine, had an accident in a newly built overhang when a large boulder hit his back. The accident victim was taken to the surgery clinic of Freiburg where he was hospitalized in serious condition.

Markelfingen, Amt Konstanz, Baden. Fisher Konrad Bickel had the good fortune of catching a wels catfish in Lake Mindel. It weighed 78 pounds and it was 1.9 meters long. These fish can get significantly heavier. A man caught one that was over a hundred pounds. It's also known that these fish can reach a very old age. A long time ago a wels was caught in Lake Constance which had moss growing on its scales.

From Neckar, Baden. In the current year the passenger shipping line on the Neckar is celebrating its 25th anniversary. The earlier steam line operated from 1841 until 1869. After a 30 year suspension in 1900 it reinstituted passenger service with a motorized ship between Heilbronn and Heidelberg. The business today has two boats, the "Neckar", which holds about 100 passengers, and the "Schwaben", which holds around 200 people.

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— The "Dollar Day" on Wednesday, which was graced with fine weather, brought in about a million dollars for the businesses.


September 4, 1925 page 7

Hun — German Soldier

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In the Desk Standard Dictionary (1924 edition), which is an extraordinarily popular work, we read the following word-for-word translated definitions:

Hun:

  1. A member of a barbaric Asiatic tribe which descended on Europe (4th Century.)
  2. (Recently) A German soldier.
  3. The same as a Vandal.

Boche:

  1. A bloodthirsty instigator or revolutionary.
  2. (Recently) A German soldier.

Any commentary is unnecessary. It would be desirable if someone could find the means and ways to take the publishing firm of this lexicon to task and hit them in the pocketbook where it would hurt.

The name of the publishing firm is Funk & Wagnalls, New York and London. The book is often offered by the firm as a premium to a subscription to the well-known weekly journal Literary Digest.

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Let Our Children Learn German!

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The Troy Freie Presse [Troy Free Press] published a timely article in its last issue which we can print since it is also being printed in Utica:

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Let Our Children Learn German!

The beginning of the school year will be upon us in a few weeks. For the new semester the school board will again introduce German instruction if there are enough students.

Thus the advisory is set in place for parents of German abstraction to have their children participate in German instruction. We don't need to explain why. The reasons are already obvious: materialistic, pedagogical, cultural, patriotic. The latter reasons are more important. The good influence of parents on their children can only be preserved if the children have a basic understanding of their parent's language. Otherwise they become alienated from their parents. And the children become more easily estranged from the cultural influence of the parents, or to use a catchphrase "to realize their oneness in German mind and body." Those children who realize this undoubtedly become the best Americans. Going back to the practical and material reasons, the knowledge of a second language along with the language of this country brings immeasurable advantages to the intellect and the pocketbook. Next to English the German language is spoken and dissminated the most around the globe.

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The Obedience of Wives

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The old bone of contention about whether a wife should obey her husband, or better put, whether she should promise obedience to him in marriage, has once again come up for discussion. The simplest resolution to this matter would be a vote taken among all husbands who have at least 20 years of experience. In time they will have learned that regardless of whether the wife promises obedience or not, she will do what she has always done. And if she is clever enough she makes sure that her husband is left with the belief that she obeys him but he does not obey her.


September 18, 1925 page 4

Examine the Injustice

The author of the many volumed, notorious novels in the Tarzan series, titled Tarzan the Untamed, has shown an extremely anti-German sentiment which has created unrest in the German Press. The American News out of Hamburg, which is a newspaper striving for better relations between Germany and the United States, has published a letter to Burrough's publisher. The author admitted that the volume was written during the war when anti-German rumors were circulating in America. The volumes would be withdrawn from businesses throughout the world and surplus copies would be put in storage. This speaks well for the author. He displays knightly decency not only in wishing to amend his slanted view of the Germans and their conduct during the war based on more recent and factual reports but also his willingness to withdraw the volume. In any case we can call this a German victory because a book that deprecated Germany now may not be stocked or sold.


September 18, 1925 page 6

The Dark War

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On Spies and Counterspies during the Time of the World War

A highly intricate and obscure espionage affair from the time of the World War, which was believed to be long forgotten and buried, has resurfaced recently in Italy. It concerns the 1916 sinking of the Italian warship "Leonardo da Vinci" in the harbor of Tarent, which not only cost the Italian fleet a grand ship but also the loss of over 3000 sailors. The events are as follows:

The grain broker Vincenzi of Moderna, the famous double agent who spied for his own country and also "worked" for the enemy at the beginning of 1916 when he came in contact with the Austrian government through mediation with the its consulate in Zurich. Vincenzi informed the Italian government of this contact, which gave him the necessary instruction to perform "counterespionage." Always in agreement with the Rome, he provided the Austrian line ship Captain Mayer information for the sinking of smaller vessels, minor strikes and mutinies, and then the sinking of the"Leonardo." From the Italian point of view this was merely to serve "to whet the Austrian appetite" to eventually learn Austrian military secrets or at least lead them around by the nose. After a while Vincenzi retired. However in the interval the "Leonardo" was sunk and Vincenzi received a letter from Zurich to collect his reward of 300,000 Kroner. And he did not resist the temptation. He reported that he drove to Zurich and obtained the sum but then he was smuggled out of Zurich and placed in a Austrian detention camp. Then he again traveled to the front and returned to Italy. It's hard to determine if the improbable story actually occurred. In any case Vincenzi was not amicably received in Italy. He was under suspicion and immediately taken into custody as the organizer of the sinking of the "Leonardo."

As was stated, in Rome the offer to Austria to sink the Leonardo was only a sham. However, now the ship really was blasted into the air. People were upset. Vincenzi appeared to be a dangerous double agent. They decided to get to the bottom of things. Two former convicts , specialists in burglery, and other honorable sorts were sent by the "Information Department" of the Marine Ministry to Zurich. They managed to crack a safe at the Austrian Consulate, which contained a number of highly important documents. All the members of the Consulate had gone to a ball to celebrate the night before Lent.

Thus the Italian government came into possession of plans for the sinking ot two other battleships and a project to blow up the Palazzo Montecitorio when the Chamber of Deputies was in session. In the matter of the sinking of the Leonardo an engineer of the Italian Marines named Santoro was compromised. He was arrested along with two other seamen. Even though there was no solid proof of their guilt in the Zurich documents, in 1921 the three were sentenced to imprisonment with heavy labor. However a few months later it came out that the Zurich documents were forgeries. The sentenced men were set free.

Naturally the public did not receive a clear explanation for this event. Vincenzi was not happy that he was only freed on a technicality for "lack of evidence." Recently Vincenzi filed a complaint with the Board of Appeals in Bari in which he blamed not just Santoro but two other high ranking Marine officers. The one named Conz, today a High Commander of the Italian Strike Forces in the Far East, supposedly knew about the Zurich forgeries. The other, Duke von Longano, currently an aide-de-camp to the king, was accused of having photographed the sinking of the Leonardo in order to deliver proof of the successful sinking to Austria.

These were outrageous charges. Doubtlessly one would have to take extreme caution and await the decision of the court before one could form an opinion about the espionage affair. In any case the "Agenzia Stefani" took the two admirals into protective custody while an order arrived for the Duke von Longano to be replaced as the king's aide-de-camp. All that is certain is that Vincenzi's character remained morally dubious. He is the typical spy with the two Janus faces. Furthermore a series of questions arose which were impossible to answer: Who forged the Zurich documents? (If they really had been forged.) Why were they forged? What were the Italian's motives for enlisting Vincenzi and which party was the spy showing his true face to?

Perhaps the second lawsuit will shed light on the event. Or perhaps not... These espionage events are always obscure, and not just from a moral perspective.

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In Search of the Treasure of the Incas

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An expedition outfitted by the French government will embark for French Guayana to look for a supposed golden treasure trove of fantastic worth. For centuries Guayana is thought to have been the legendary El Dorado, the city of gold. Stories about rich hoards of silver and gold are the reason Sir Walter Raleigh decided to launch an expedition to Guayana in 1599. With the intention of discovering El Dorado, after reaching the island of Trinidad he sailed up the Orinoco. Upon this return he wrote a fantastic tale about the trip and its results. This report is the beginning of all legends which circulated throughout Europe and culminated into a fairytale in which the last of the Incas were driven from their land and fled with their treasure onboard the "Maroni" to Guayana.

Sir Walter Raleigh also distributed a rumor of a rich gold mine which he wanted to find in Guayana. Since King Jacob I [sic] of England was in need of gold he appointed Raleigh supreme commander of an expedition to seek out the gold mine. He guaranteed Raleigh a fifth portion of the anticipated treasure. The expedition failed and the indignant king ordered Raleigh sent before the court upon his return home. He was condemned to death and executed on October 29, 1680[sic - 1618.] However the legends of a gold mine and the enormous treasure of the Incas lived on. Supposedly the gold king had lived and died in a fabulous palace in the city of Manao del Dorado. The rumors say that he bathed in liquid gold because he had an inexhaustible supply of the precious metal. Thinking about this imaginary gold has put the world in a fever for centuries and as previously stated, still infects the French government today.

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Heidelberg. The arrest of the administrative director of the Heidelberg Labor Department for large scale embezzlement of unemployment benefits has caused an enormous uproar. Director Härter previously enjoyed a fine reputation for his civil service and he was chairman of the civil servant association. The falsifications by Härter were done in a clumsy fashion since he wrote down the names of unemployed people who were not in the address register. He maintains that he himself had already paided out the benefits to the unemployed and was just recooping the funds from the cashier of the Unemployment Office, who blindly trusted him. To date there is a deficit of 16,000 Marks. Härter is in custody. The cashier was immediately put on leave. Fortunately the unemployed have not suffered but the contributors — the employers and the workers — are the victims.


October 9, 1925 page 1

Ruppert Leads the Fight for Beer

New York — We should utilize every legal means to again get beer with 2.75% alcohol, declared Colonel Jacob Ruppert, the newly elected president of the Brewers Association of the United States. Mr. Ruppert is the owner of a well-known brewery and president of the New York Baseball Club, which hosts the Yankees.

"We want beer again," Mr. Ruppert said. "We will do everything legal and appropriate to obtain our goal." People throughout the country want beer again and naturally will look to the brewers for help. The people will see their wish fulfilled as soon as they take steps and make their wish known."

Suggestions which certain brewery interests have submitted to the lawyer for the Anti-Saloon League, Wayne B. Wheeler, did not come from associations but from individuals. The association will not beg for the favor of the Anti-Saloon League nor will it attempt to do some horsetrading. It will welcome anyone, be it citizens associations or groups, which wish to lend assistance to amend the Volstead Act.

Ruppert was elected president of the Brewers Association after a committee had attempted without success to convince former president Christian Feigenspan to rescind his retirement. Supposedly Feigenspan resigned because he refused to deal with the prohibitionists.


October 9, 1925 page 2

Cunning

Mother in the Kitchen: "Kids, the roast is burnt! Run around the parlor and irritate your father until he loses his appetite for dinner!"


October 23, 1925 page 6

The Conference of the Expatriated German Community in the Old Homeland.
August 29 through September 2, 1925

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(Special Report for the Syracuse Union)

The first conference of the Expatriated German Community in the Old Homeland has ended. It is the first time an attempt has been made to assemble expatriated Germans from all over the world in order to give them the opportunity to share their interests, desires, and challenges in the old homeland.

The conference was conceived as the first attempt of its kind, a prelude to a declaration of feelings, an introduction to further large-scale events. No one expected much of this first conference. The results exceeded all expectations. The enrollment from other countries, which ran slowly at first, increased rapidly. As the evening of the opening session approached the number of confirmed expatriated German representatives was no fewer than 115 participants from 35 countries. At home the number of Germans who would take care of the expatriates exceeded 100.

All event halls were overly full. It was a proud picture of worldwide German life force. Heads from all the countries of the earth sat at table after table under one roof. It was a sublime experience to know these sons of Germany were still united in silent loyalty to the old homeland which they left decades ago.

The government and the press followed the proceedings with avid interest. Such extraordinary encouragement demonstrated the necessity for the conference. The unconditional urgency was already apparent from the first hour of the first event. All the discussions from the expatriated Germans resounded with the call for active participation in the destiny of the homeland. The necessity for a unified voice and close contact was posited by all participants as an essential requirement for the future. The willingness to work together climaxed in a resolution to convene a second conferece in the homeland in 1927. The leadership would reside in the hands of the expatriates. The alliance of expatriated Germans should take over the preparations as the organization in charge. The guiding principles should be established by trusted individuals appointed by their German associations. This would create an incentive for following through on the mammoth goal of German unity.

In the two days of proceedings it was not possible to exhaustively examine the full set of problems. However the most important tasks of defining the field of activity and clarifying the agenda were established.

Along with the grandly ideal and cultural questions there are particular objectives of immediate and practical interest, above all the robbery of German private property by the victors, the never satisfied demands of acquisition and loss of citizenship, and finally the granting of Reich voting rights to citizens operating on foreign soil. The following resolutions were unanimously carried with regard to these issues:

The Conference of the Expatiated Germans assembled in the homeland unanimously protest the seizure of German private property abroad.

"They expect the Reich government to exercise all possible means to make good on the damage done to German private property. They are of the opinion that after adoption of the Dawes Plan the possibility for taking positive steps may be achieved through negotiation."

"The Conference of the Expatiated Germans assembled in the homeland request that the Reich government might submit to the legislative body the outline for a law which gives expatriated Germans of foreign or no citizenship (German heritage and German language) entitlement to citizenship in the country of their settlement.

"The Conference of the Expatiated Germans assembled in the homeland request that the imperial government might submit an amendment to the legislative body which applies regulations in which citizens of the empire settled abroad are able to exercise their voting rights in accordance with the empire's constitution."

A further resolution demands from the government that it emphasize the limitations of temporary or permanent residency in a settlement, equality in industrial, police and passport enforcement, and a return to pre-war international freedom of movement.

Hannover professor Dr. Göbel and Berlin professor Dr. Paul Rohrbach reported on the significance of expatriated Germans on the global economy. They showed in substantial detail the ways in which the German economy could gain access abroad. Privy council and Breslau professor Dr. Kühnemann thoroughly demonstrated the many facets of the problems in German culture in relation to those of expatriated Germans. Professor Busse of the University of New York gave a compelling lecture on the Germans in the United States and their relationship to the homeland.

The speakers from the various institutes repeatedly emphasized the necessity of struggling against the lies concerning wartime guilt which have done so much harm to the German reputation and the lies concerning our colonial ineptitude. In a resolution the government was asked to refer to the issues of colonial ineptitude and wartime guilt whenever an opportunity abroad presented itself and to emphasize the rights of national self-determination and cultural autonomy.

Countless German associations and colonies abroad sent the conference written and telegraphed letters wishing them good luck. Reich President von Hindenburg expressed in his telegram in greeting the hope that the work of the conference might strengthen the love and trust between the homeland and the expatriated Germans and that both groups would unite while striving to benefit Germany and its status in the world.

Reich Foreign Minister Dr. Stresemann acknowledged the importance of the event as he spoke a few words on the opening evening immediately before taking a vacation. The scene was hopeful as he outlined the homeland's resurgence and his banner cry to the expatriated Germans did not fall on deaf ears because the leader of Germany's foreign affairs struck a chord of understanding with the Germans from abroad. The Reich government, which was represented by members of the various departments who performed all transactions, could not simply ignore the requests and desires of the expatriated Germans. The conference had given the issues substance. The expatriated Germans represented a force with which the government had to reckon. The 24 million Germans who live abroad are entitled to participate in the decisions of the homeland. At the conference they had for the first time raised the voices with powerful determination. They must continue to be heard and no longer be left to their own fates.

It now comes down to weaving the threads together tightly. The seriousness, the releveance and the heated emotions concerning the fatherland which filled the entire conference guarantees there will be negotiations and action. There's no doubt that the expatriated Germans joyously and willfully want to help build the motherland and join in the homeland's efforts to build strong bridges to the world. Our countrymen from abroad had an opportunity to look at the old homeland and form personal opinions about the needs and creative force of the German people. They will spread the truth about the German homeland to the rest of the world. It may be hoped that the conference of expatriated Germans may bring the ideal of a greater Germany to fruition and bring blessings to a sorely tried fatherland.

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The result of the closing of the wartime debt funding negotiations is the decline in the value of the French Franc.


October 23, 1925 page 9

In the Homeland of the Elephant

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A Memoire on Old German East Africa.

Former first lieutenant Heinrich Fonck, an old colonial soldier, who spent over 1500 days in a tent and wandering in Africa, has published a volume in the Ullstein Publication series "Wege zu Wissen" [Pathways to Knowledge] titled Unter afrikanischem Grosswild [Among the African Big Game.] We have printed the following interesting passage from that book:

Far off to the north of Lake Kivu, where still active but long dormant volcanos rise up to a height of 4500 meters, I sat daily for many hours at a high-altitude trignometric signal station waiting to receive the flashing of mirrors from other stations in order to begin angular measurements. However for days no flashing lights arrived. But since the post could not be abandonned for even an hour, my time at that rocky, wind-swept elevation was far from entertaining. Before me to the west was a many kilometer wide, unpassable lava field mostly barren except for a few patches of brush and some small gnarled trees. With my trusty companion of many years, a twelve power magnifying telescope by Goerz Optics, I explored nature in all directions whenever there were no angles to measure. Soon I was searching a farther opposite forested region beyond the lava field. The forest may have been about three kilometers away. After several days of rain the air was wonderfully clear so one could see far and wide with the scope. I had just leaned back , propped up my arms and placed the telescope to my eye when I saw elephants, so many in number that I could scarcely believe it.

Whereever I directed the telescope there were elephants in view, spending their morning hours as they always did. There were certainly four to five hundred of them. Perhaps more. Like a slow-moving airplane floating above them, I observed their actions for hours over many days. It was an unforgettable, fablelike vista. Then they disappeared to the west into the Congo.

The immeasurable breadth of the Congo forest revealed greater numbers of the thick skins, as we called them since elephants had such perfect, natural protection.

Without a doubt our old colony housed more elephants than could have been counted 20 years ago, especially the endlessly lit forests in the south, the mountainous regions of Uhehe and Mahenge — while the area between Kilimanjaro and Lake Victoria is more the homeland of the well-protected rhinoceros.

Still today it is relatively easy to conclude that both animals are similarly imposing like so many descendents of the fabulous primeval animal world, provided one is not pursued by the persistent disfavor of fate.

Easy anyway for someone who has the time, much time. During the rebellion of 1905-1906 there was time enough for a man operating in Rufidje to shoot seventeen elephants, the location of which I later verified. No one knows how many he shot but didn't kill. The man justified his actions with the sentimental explanation "If I don't shoot them then someone else will."

In 1907 in Rufidje a so-called Bur shot 30 elephants in a few months.

In the Mahengo region Europeans trapped an entire group of elephants. The hunter in charge, who was always out and about and allowed other good marksmen to help him, must have made a lot of Gold Marks.

During the rainy season the elephants come down from the mountains into the Ruzizi and Ulan Plains. When the mangoes ripen at the end of November they punctually come to Rufidje and to the old towering mango trees, which thrive in place of long abandonned villages, having combined with the light forest brush.

For a few years shooting elephants on Kilimanjaro was forbidden but due to the harm they caused to the vegetation hunting was reinstated. In 1900 a new hunting law gave protection to these magnificent creatures of God by placing high fees on hunting license then limiting the number which could be shot to two per year per license. But once this law outlived its usefulness the elephants in German East Africa were slowly and permanently eradicated. Since then the population has no longer been large enough to amend the shooting limits to supplement the number of offspring.

As reported, in the miserable uninhabited regions of the Congo State there are still so many large elephant herds that a substantial decline in there number is not expected at this time. If this fact were not certain then it would not have been considered possible for the Arabs to move in from the east into Tanganica around six years ago and then invade the Congo State and set up village fences composed of elephant ivory tusks.

Acquiring elephant ivory was and is the goal and the enterprise of countless men in Africa striving for profit and power. As long as the world has existed bloody wars have been fought for gold, jewels, or treasure-rich lands. Greed for ivory in central Africa has prompted countless battles, atrocities, murder and arson. Not only would the elephant be driven to extinction whereever man can obtain gun powder and lead but in order to get these tusks happy little villages would be raided and robbed, men would be forced to fight then taken off in chains and sold as slaves.

Of this there is no chronicle. No record, no document could offer testimony to the number human lives sacrificed in proportion to the amount of ivory obtained or the number of killed elephants. They would be like ghastly fairytales told by old Arabs who lived through those eras. Also a "Blessed Gift of Culture," the firearm. And then — Did it make things much better for long for the successors to the Arabs in the Congo State?

No greater bringer of joy was imaginable for the black portion of the earth than the railroad. The elephant will in any case disappear if it is not jointly preserved by the nations of culture since the railroad eats up its greatest protector, infinite space!

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Snuff Is Popular Again

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The enjoyment of tobacco snuff, which appeared to die out with our grandfathers and which was only revered by certain steadfast enthusiasts, has resurrected. According to the French magazine Boudoir the only remaining people who used it were clergymen and certain categories of workmen. However among the so-called upper classes the use of snuff went out of fashion over the course of the years although it was known throughout the world in social history.

The first aristocratic woman who was known to use snuff for health reasons was Catherine de Medici. She used the first snuff powder which was made from tobacco plants brought back to France by Nicot. Nicotin was named after him and it was considered a precious gift. People asserted that it was an unfailing cure for half sided headaches and other head pains. Famous users of snuff from the upper classes include Ludwig XVI, Cromwell, Napoleon I and Talleyrand. Their tobacco boxes are housed in museums and are famous for their high value in gold and artistry.

And now snuff is popular again. It's considered so chic in social circles that even women enthusiastically use it in imitation of Catherine de Medici. One medicine man is of the opinion that it is a healthy alternative to dangerous cocaine snuff and other toxic options. The constant sneezing is not an entirely desirable or aesthetically pleasing bonus when using snuff, though it's a bit more acceptable with an exquisite handkerchief with fine lace.

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Prague, Czechoslovakia — Since March in the Ostrau-Karwiner coal district 5000 miners have been furloughed. Currently the mining operators intend to lay off many more thousands of workers. Despite this severe reduction in staff the mine operators are unable to guarantee mine workers employment for at least five days a week. The market standstill and the initiation of dropped shifts will bring little change in the current situation.


November 13, 1925 page 4

Concerning Immigrant Bonds

A while back a German women appeared at the German Bureau of the Foreign Language Information Service in New York. She had landed in the United States about six months ago without her husband, who as an Austrian could not obtain an immigrant visa. He though he could follow her later. When she first arrived the immigration authorities denied her entry since there were concerns that she would become a burden on public welfare. Eventually her friends put up a bond for $500 and the authorities allowed her and her children to stay as visitors for 6 months. Once the 6 month period was over she requested that the authorities allow her to stay an additional 6 months. Her bondsman did not want to renew the bond because he and she had a dispute and he wanted her deported. He wanted his money back. What was the woman and her children to do?

The above is an oft repeated case. Someone does certain things out of sympathy which after due consideration he regrets since she exceeds his authority. You see it frequently with bonds for immigrants. Out of praiseworthy sympathy relatives and friends feel obligated to post bond so that the immigrant does not become a burden on the community. For some the bond is a small thing; for others it creates unanticipated difficulties. Often they complain about the poor immigrant and old friendships break down. Anyone who sets down a security payment should consider what obligation he is incurring. Some immigrants cannot be admitted even when they themselves are ready to post the bond. In this case there are many reasons why the authorities will not grant entry. To this class of immigrants belong , for example, people who suffer from consumption, trachoma, ringworm or venereal disease and people with mental disorder or intellectual deficiency. By federal regulation these people are excluded from entry and it is seldom that immigrants of this class may land. A notable exception was the case of the mother of film performer Charlie Chaplin, who was intellectually deficient. She was allowed in as a visitor because she was very old and her son had sufficient means to provide the best medical care and make sure that she did not become a burden on the community. But she was only allowed in as a visitor and one day she will probably have to leave the country.

In other cases the arguments for and against the immigrant's entry hang in the balance. The authorities are willing to grant entry if friends or relatives are willing to post bond and guarantee that the immigrants will not become a burden on society and will leave the country after a predetermined time. Some who do not suffer from a serious heart condition or a fracture, or are too old to work, or are crippled will be denied entry because it is feared that they cannot support themselves. But if a relative provides a bond, the immigrant is granted entry. This also applies to children under the age of 16 who have no father in the United States and to women who arrive with one or more children and whose husband does not reside in the United States.

Most bonds amount up to $500. This is no small sum but one must consider that the amount is frozen in place yearly and that the money cannot be unfrozen until the risk of the immigrant becoming a burden on public welfare is over. In the large majority of cases the money is unfrozen if the immigrant dies or leaves the United States. This also applies to bonds posted for immigrants who suffer from heart failure, old age infirmity or other affliction which is incurable. If the physical affliction which prompted the authorities to consider the immigrant a burden on society is healed or reversed and this is demonstrated to the authorities, then the bond can be rescinded. If bond is posted for a widow with children and the widow remarries a man able to support her children then the bond request also can be rescinded. So-called student bonds will be rescinded after a certain time. These bonds are in effect during the span in which a student up to age 16 attends school and any employment does not interfere with his schooling. Once the child reaches 16, is employed and can prove that he will not be a burden on public welfare then the bond will be rescinded. Anyone who posts bond for an immigrant who will spend 6 or fewer months in the United States and can then prove that the immigrant has left the United States will be able to recoup his money provided there has been no cost to the government. In such cases the foreigner must pay his travel expenses. If he cannot afford the trip the person who posted the bond must pay before he can recoup the bond payment. The bond poster must go to the immigration officer and supply the name of the ship or train the foreigner is taking to leave the country. Then the bond payment will be remitted without a long delay. This communication allows the immigration officer to establish that the immigrant truly has left the country. If the bond poster neglects to communicate with the immigration authorities then he'll have to wait longer for his money. It should also be mentioned that anyone who posts bond for an immigrant will recoup his money if the immigrant becomes an American citizen.

If the immigrant becomes a burden upon society within the first five years in the United States due to conditions existing before his arrival the bond poster will lose the bond and the immigrant will be deported. If he becomes a burden after more than five years he cannot be deported however the bond poster will lose his money. A student bond is forfeited if the child does not attend school until he is 16 and a visitor's bond, which is also called a "Departure Bond" must be posted if the immigrant does not leave the country. A visitor can be deported for as long as he lives in the United States. If he is not permitted to stay permanently he cannot purchase a house no matter how long he may stay.

The immigration authorities of the United States accept for bond only two forms of security, either Liberty Bonds or property deed. Liberty Bonds are the simplest form of surety and are the preferred form by most bond posters and immigration authorities. If property is offered as surety two properties must be put up whereby the owner's equity value is at least twice as great as the bond. Here the laws of individual states apply. In certain states the immigrant authorities do not accept property bonds when the title is communally filed in the husband and wife's name. In other states they do not accept personal property which is mortgaged. Under no circumstances are married women allowed to post bond, even if they have both Liberty Bonds and personal property and the assets are exclusively theirs.

Certain persons who cannot find someone to post bond may go through a surety company. This seems an unnecessary option when the poster can take care of business himself. Usually the company charges 6 percent and still demands collateral which covers the cost of the bond. The only advantage a surety company offers is that it accepts property as collateral which would be rejected by the immigration authorities such as bank accounts, stocks and promissary notes.


December 4, 1925 page 2

German Hardship in Bessarabia

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From a Swabian in the Rumanian Banat.

It's scarcely been a hundred years since wanderlusty Swabians, mostly from Württemberg and the Duchy of Warsaw, settled in the coastal towns of the Black Sea and established themselves in the local life yet remained truly German throughout all the political and economic hardships of the times right up to today. The first settlers, 1443 families, came in 1814 and established seven settlements: Borodino, Tarutino, Kulm, Maloja Proskewitz, Krassna, Leipzig, and Klöstitz — all memorializing battles waged by Napoleon I. Two years later Fere-Champenoise, Brieene, Pris and Arzys were settled, followed by Teplitz in 1817, Gnadental in 1833, Lichtental and Friedental in 1834, Dennewitz in 1836, Plotzk in 1839, and Hoffnungstal in 1842. Today the German population numbers over 100,000 residents who live in newly created Akkerman County in large settlements with the exclusive advantages of its own cultural and economic dominion over the entire region — Romanians, Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Greeks, Bulgarian, Armenians, Jews and Gypsies receive special attention. The World War, and even more the confusion of the post-war era, have severely wounded Bessarabia and the Germans have suffered many blood sacrifices which could scarcely be replaced in a decade, not to mention the damage to hard-won possessions. Nonetheless the Swabians have remained loyal to the land which became their second home. The numbers who have left are too few to mention. The Swabians in the Banat and the Saxons in Transylvania have strongly supported their land and consider themselves an essential compenent of the self-aware German community in Romania.

Due to the World War this state has been changed from an unattractive Balkan state to an attention-worthy East-European middle state. Its huge increase in land area and people has brought in countless Non-Romanian inhabitants which seem to the Romanian nationalists in power like a "blemish on the body of the national unified state." Along with 12 million Romanians there are 1 ½ million Slavs, 1 ½ million Magyars, 800,000 Germans and almost as many Jews and finally 300,000 Turks. Almost a third of the total population of Romania constitute a nationalistic minority without any special minority protections. In truth each group is robbed of its national and cultural freedom of movement. The Bucharest government has gotten it into its head to turn Greater Romania into a unified national state. And thus, as usual, the Germans become the first to become cultural fodder.

A single law amended the conditions of the protection regulations and specifically established that the national minorities not turn to the League of Nations with their issues and difficulties but rather seek assistance from their own government. Minority protections are still an inalienable component of the State Constitution and expressly obligate Romania to not enact any law or regulation which contradicts the protection acts. It's interesting how this constituionally contradicting proposition by the Romanian government would be taken up by the League of Nations and the major powers.

The German community in Bessarabia suffers harshly under these nationalistic endeavors. To begin with, like all lands under Russian rule, they want state control of the German schools, for which the German settlers sacrificed so much to build. This "nationalization" is actually "Romanization." In 1924 the dangerous Bolshevik coup in Tatar-Bunar was only repelled by the determination and selflessness of the German farmers. As reward for this efforts which prevented the greater portion of Bessarabia and the old Romanian border falling to the Bolshevik deluge, the Germans were granted unconditional usage of their mother tongue in all schools. However soon after this "privilege" was modified so that it applied only to those schools which were the property of the German populace and not eligible to be confiscated by the government. This applied to around 100 elementary schools, one academic high school in Tarutino, a teachers college and four agricultural schools built and maintained by the Germans at their own cost. Recently in the Romanian Council of Ministers a resolution was passed without waiting for the decision of the investigating committee, to acknowledge that the German schools in Bessarabia are confessional schools with public rights thus presenting the Bessarabian German community with a temporary solution to their problem.

The joy over this success will be tarnished by the abrupt and difficult cares of existence. Drought and hail storms have created a bad harvest and starvation in many villages. Entire groups of farmers from the Dniester commune, owning up to 100 hectars in fields, bundled their possessions and moved to their closest relatives in the Banat in order to escape extinction. The Dniester River flooded the land for kilometers and destroyed valuable cattle, entire harvests and countless buildings. The cries for help from the suffering are earthshaking because they echo to no avail. Everything is lacking: money, shelter, food, and concern for the German people. Once again they must rely on themselves and on the helping hands of their countrymen in Bukovina, the Banat, and Transylvania who are doing their utmost to help their Bessarabian brethren through this time of dire need. Perhaps the voices of the ten German officials and four senators in the Romanian Parliament can assist in finally obtaining substantial support in some form from the Romanian government to the residents of the region which after the World War the Romanians declared a part of their ancient homeland and took in ownership.

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Windmills as Instruments of Suicide

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In his novel about the Knight Don Quixote de la Manches the Spanish writer Cervantes told how the noble hero of the day fought with a windmill and won. Naturally it deals with fictional situations since in reality no rational being fights against a windmill sail in order to prepare his earthly existence for its end. However this is no battle; according to the most basic natural law it's suicide. Now there's a branch of statistics which has taken on the task of proving in pure mathematical terms how high a percentage of humanity wishes to cast off its earthly burden. There are various avenues of approach to this, some more or less comfortable, some painless or painful. To allow windmill sails to thrash your bones in order to depart from the Vale of Tears is neither comfortable or painless. However there are certain outliers. One particular odd fellow who thought he was bound to be chosen for a windmill could be found in the village of Buckow not far from Rathenow. He found a unique way in which to meet his fate. He placed himself before the sail of a moving windmill, allowed himself to be hurled into the air. The injuries resulted in immediate death. Perhaps the police placed the windmill under surveillance to prevent retaliation or imitators heedless of the painfulness of the procedure. Besides which it might be unpleasant for coffee drinkers nibbling on their coffeecake to think about how the mill sails grind the grain for their sweet cake while at the same time contemplating a man being hurled into the air and breaking his bones. The police have many tasks to perform and the progressing decadence of humanity is always adding more. If things continue this way a policeman will have to stand behind each citizen or he will have to have a sworn-to-protect night watchman himself. Apparently the modern man thinks the night watchman state is an absolute necessity. Only primitive people can do without them.

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Lorch, Württemberg. While switching a car at the railway station one car went off the track. In raising the car with winches it slid into a rut and severely injured the head of an assisting attendant named Abele. There also appeared to be internal injuries. Abele had to be taken to the hospital.


December 11, 1925 page 1

Stories about Germans cooking corpses during the War officially disclaimed in British Parliament

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London — In the spirit of the Locarno Pact Sir Austen Chamberlain disclaimed in the House of Commons the infamous cadaver story whereby Germans during the war supposedly cooked down corpses for their fat. This story was perhaps the most sensational of all the wartime propaganda against Germany.

"The Chancellor of the German Republic," Chamberlain said, "has empowered me by his own authority to declare that there was never a basis at hand for the cadaver story.

"I offer this disclaimer in the name of the British government and I am convinced that this false report will never be updated."

Cheers greeted this declararion, which were heard by Chancellor Luther and Foreign Minister Stresemann of Germany in the gallery for distinguished foreigners.


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Translation by Susan Kriegbaum-Hanks