Between the World Wars: Articles from the Syracuse Union, available through the New York State Newspaper Project

[Translator's Note: There is no coverage for the year 1924 online or on microfilm, although issues for 1924 would have been numbered Volume 72.
Publication day was changed from Thursday for the 1923 issues to Friday for the 1925 issues.]

January 16, 1925 page 2

Poet Spitteler is dead

Bern, Switzerland — Carl F. Spitteler, the famous poet, has died at the age of 81 and has been buried in his home city of Lucerne. In 1919 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was deemed a splendid essayist and received even more acclaim in the field of literature.

Spitteler's fame as a writer stretched well beyond the borders of Switzerland. Critics could not deny his creative talent. The mastery of language was demonstrated in his ballads and poetic narratives and he never failed to have a large readership. In 1881 he published the epic poem "Prometheus and Epimethus" followed by poetry and stories on various subjects including "Lachende Wahrheiten," "Olympischer Frühling," "Die Mädchen Feinde," "Glockenlieder," and the novel Imago. In 1914 he gave us the book Meine frühesten Erlebnisse [My Earliest Experiences]. In 1919 he conducted a lecture on Gottfried Keller in which he celebrated this great fellow countryman.

For years the Swiss celebrated Spitteler as one of their great men and right up into his autumn years and beyond he enjoyed great vitality even though his creative power seemed to diminish. He was born in Liestal and studied at the universities in Basel, Zurich and Heidelberg.

January 16, 1925 page 2

Mother Jacobine Neuhardt, a reader of the Syracuse Union for many years,
celebrates her 101st Birthday.

Last year on Tuesday Mrs. Jacobine Neuhardt of 413 Court St. celebrated her 100th birthday. Last Tuesday it was granted to her to begin a new century and bring together her many friends to wish her good fortune on her 101st birthday. With bright eyes, in the best of health, wearing a firm expression on her face furrowed by the years she received congratulations and indicated that the past year had been a wonderful and happy one. Even if her eyes were no longer as bright as they were last year and her hearing diminished a bit she suffered from no particular ailment. She said that the past year had gone by quickly due to visits with friends and knitting. The Syracuse Union, which had been one of her best friends for many years, is still a constant guest in Mrs. Neuhardt's home.

Mrs. Neuhardt came to Syracuse 71 years ago. This is where she met her first husband, Peter Numphs. They moved to the First Ward and Mr. Numphs was in the salt business. He died a few years later. She then married William Neuhardt, who died in 1860. Mrs. Neuhardt had four children, of which two are still living. These are Miss Amelia Neuhardt and Mrs. Katherine Abbott. Mrs. Neuhardt and her younger daughter live in the same house, where the aged mother enjoys excellent care.

The Union once again conveys its most heartfelt good wishes to its oldest reader. May she have many more years of good health in her second century.

February 6, 1925 page 3

The Land of Endless Possibilities


According to the new immigration law only 52,000 Germans will still be allowed into the United States. At first that seems like a lot, but it's really few if one considers that after a short period of time many of them will return to their homeland. According to various reports emigration is already greater than immigration.

Why is that and can it be changed? Certainly, it can be changed if one recognizes the real reasons and tries to undertand them. In most cases the cause is based on disappointment. Hopes were simply too high. The privation of wartime and the consequences of the post-war era have awakened expectations in the newly emerging generation. It's not just the desire to flee the misery of the homeland but the wish to attain everything as easily as possible when for so many years they were unattainable. Often abundant gifts and well-meant but too rosy descriptions of America sent by friends and relatives living here contribute fuel to the wanderlust. If the helping hand is extended, the hopeful immigrant soon after has a goal in sight.

But then disillusionment sets in. One finds out that so many things are different than they were in the old homeland. It's ghastly that the people here don't want to understand — Just speaking correctly — Attending night school, but not always being able to get there, and then there's winter. — Over there the Germans wander through the districts singing and playing and making pilgrimages along the country roads. However here the people with their automobiles have no understanding of German romanticism — How pleasant it is spending evenings at local inn table, playing cards and having a glass of beer. That's missing here in America. Then there's the generous uncle gently reminding you that the ship ticket costs a great deal, which then leads to the realization that one must work for every single dollar.

If an acceptable position is not found, the decision to return to the homeland haven is quickly made with a long face since the immigrant has a history of experiences steeped in disappointment. He does not understand that he has to adjust to different circumstances.

However if an immigrant comes here with the intention of settling and becoming a citizen all the previous arguments fall apart. From the beginning he takes the hinderances into account. He attempts to overcome everything and make use of whatever advantages are available. That takes hard work, persistence, and frugality. With a little bit of luck success will follow.

This may serve as a noteworthy example:

A young couple came here on their own 1 ½ years ago. People made their arrival difficult. They settled in Syracuse, worked hard, saved their money, and lived simply. They searched for and found German contacts and took part in German society. Without outside help they got along so well that they now have a comfortably furnished, beautiful house with a large garden of their own, all in a year and a half.

We add by way of proof that the well-known lutist-singer Mr. Hans Brand and his young wife have their new home at 1414 Spring St. Completing the happiness of this young couple is the new family they have started. On Tuesday, January 20th their healthy daughter was born, as was announced in our last issue.

Another example is the immigration of a cousin to one of the Union's writers. Mr. Alfred Wadewitz, a young school teacher from Rochlitz, Saxony, came to America about a 1 ½ years ago and settled in San Francisco, California. In December his bride and her three children arrived. They were married immediately and since then happiness and contentment have prevailed, as indicated by a card which arrived at the Union office on Tuesday. It read:

"I wish to tell you tht my beloved bride arrived on December 30th and we were married immediately. Joy has come to the 27th hill [?] of San Francisco in our own home. I've been a home owner for 3 ½ months..."

With the firm intention of staying here, and above all with a happy home life, everyone can prosper.

February 27, 1925 page 7

Buffalo's German Citizens Busy


New Amalgamation of Associations and Individuals; Mayor Schwab becomes a Member


Buffalo, N.Y. — The German-American Citizens Alliance of Buffalo and the Surrounding Areas, a descendent of the earlier Buffalo City Association of the German-American State Alliance, held its yearly meeting. The Harugari Frohsinn and its Ladies' Division, the Humboldt Sickness and Death Fund, the Garfield Support Society and a number of private individuals were inducted as members. Dr. Gustav Hitzel, the well-known former president of the Buffalo City Association and vice-president of the German-American State Alliance conducted the induction ceremony of new officers with President Anton Kuhe [sic - Kuhne] presiding.

Mayor [Frank] X. Schwab's speech created a significant moment and he received an invitation to become a member, which he accepted. A fervent call to the German community to stand united formed the main message of the Mayor's address. He emphasized that unity was the means to fulfilling their goal. Mayor Schwab promised the Citizens Alliance his full cooperation and support. Honorary President Dr. Hitzel also gave an address which suggested the course the Citizens Alliance should take.

February 27, 1925 page 7

The "German Central" of Cleveland


German-Americans and New Immigrants Establish a Strong Economic Organization.

An economic organization under the name "Deutsche Zentrale" [German Central,] Cleveland Branch has been established in Cleveland, Ohio. Its goal is to faciitate a strong merger between German-Americans and new immigrants.

In mid October a mass assembly of new immigrants was convened by editor Felix Schmidt in the meeting hall of the Social Gymnastics Society. 300 people attended. At the second mass assembly held at the beginning of December 500 attended, a good 35 percent of which were German-Americans. At the close of this second meeting an organizational committee was called to life with equal numbers of German-Americans and new immigrants. The committee zealously got down to work and within two weeks established a legal aid office and information bureau and organized a collection of clothes, shoes and toys for the new immigrants and their children. In mid January the incorporation of German Central in Columbus, Ohio followed. Among the incorporators was the Honorable Hermann C. Baehr, former mayor of Cleveland. On Monday, February 2nd election of officers for German Central occurred.

The goal of German Central's ecomonic association, which deals with religion and politics, is the unification of German-Americans and new immigrants and anyone speaking German, having German sentiments, and deliberating on German issues regardless of whether they come from Germany, Austria, Hungary, Transylvania, Switzerland, Russia, or some other country. The guiding principle of German Central is mutual assistance!

Areas of concentration which German Central will establish or has provisionally established include employment; certification; clothing, shoe and toy collection; scheduling "German Evenings to which leading Americans will be invited; organizing annual expositions featuring German industry in America; legal and information bureaus for American businesses (translation of letters); support and promotion of football and gymnastics; organization of discussion groups in German and English; creation of continuing education programs; railroad station missions; remediation of disputes among Germans; elimination of the Sunday of the Dead, which coincides with the arrival of farmers in the neighborhood, who visit in order to relax outdoors.

The first German-American association which supported new immigrants in every respect and dealt with their moral advancement was the Cleveland Steuben Association, which gave birth to German Central.

February 27, 1925 page 8

Maturity Comes Eventually


We're taking the following lines from the Schenectady Herold Journal:

Following one of the reports in our newspaper in which two young Germans did not feel the least bit at home here in America so they went back to Germany, the Syracuse Union wrote:

"There are such young people in every city, even in ours. And indeed one finds that these young people might gladly return to America if they go back to the old homeland and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the old and new world."

We can add to this that we know of one instance in which maturity came soonafter. A young man, who earned a good wage here, had nothing holding him here so he simply went back. Happy to turn his back on America, he left in December and made his way back to his old home, but it wasn't long until disillusionment came. Germany is a wonderful and beautiful country but one must have money. His expectations were bitterly dashed since employment prospects were scarce. There was no way to earn a living. In a letter to a relative who lives here he stated that he regretted leaving and wanted to return. His aunt believed him and sent him a ticket for boat passage since he had no money or savings.

March 6, 1925 page 7

How Bock Beer Was Created in Germany


It's not yet 100 years old but it quickly became part of the everyday culture.


by Attorney C. Vogt

It was the beginning of the previous century. My breezes sighed. In the environs of Berlin there were certain locales in which groups of guests attended military concerts where food and drinks were served. These establishments with shaded gardens and wide halls were found before the Halle Gate, the Schönhauser and Prenzlau Gates; in Friedrichshain; in the Landberger and Königsallee; in Hafenheide and the zoo.

Originally bock beer season coincided with the migrationof goats ["bock" is German for goat] in the Tempelhof Mountains. The sweet liquid was enjoyed in the garden and served in heavy stone jugs or small glasses. "Serve yourself" was the custom as men and women pressed in around the bar to get the beer and pay the five silver pennies deposit for the "obolus," a humble liter jug. Gradually bock beer season arrived earlier — at New Years Day, then days earlier according to the individual brewery's interest in advertising its stock of bock beer for Christmas parties or enterprising innkeepers wishing to hold their own bock beer festivals. Entire industries sprang up for the manufacture of amusing novelty items in the service of said enterprises until more serious times put a damper on harmless bock beer activities because the beer became too expensive and only a few tiny remnants of the bock beer hubbub remained. Perhaps the current questions about the gold standard and the end of the dollar heyday will provide the desired remedy in Germany.

The old bock brewery, today's Schulheiss-Patzenhofer Brewery in Belle Alliance St., opened at Eastertime 1839. In 1838 Georg Leonhardt Hopff, owner of Deibelsch Wine Dealers in Leipzig St., bought the grounds of the former Belin Bock Brewery from the Military's Financial Office. On May 8th of the same year he laid the groundstone to the brewery. By the next year 400 tons of delicious drink was produced. At the beginning of the 1840s bock beer was served on the Spandau Mountain. Since this beer was soon very popular other breweries followed the example and early each year dark bock beer was produced. The product of the Tempelhofer Mountain Brewery was called the original bock because this is where the process for making the beer was created.

How the term bock beer originated remains mostly a question for doctoral candidates. Perhaps it comes from Munich. It may have derived from "Aimbock", the designation for the heavy Eimbecker beer produced in Munich. Others think that on his way up the stairs from the beer cellar after a beer tasting a Bavarian prince called out "the goat kicked me!" and so the name was given. Finally it should not be forgotten that bock beer was originally a springtime drink. It was enjoyed at a time in which all ancient folk customs still had some following; customs going back to mythology such as the cult of Donar (Thor,) who drove through the air on a wagon drawn by three goats. Donar is the ancient Germanic god of rabbits, roosters, squirrels and goats, which may explain why the goat was chosen as the image representing bock beer.

Back then more than today there was a Spandau bock beer along with the Tempelhof Mountains bock. There ass also another bock brewed by a neighboring establishment called "Zibbe," an old Berlin word for goat. Early each year in Berlin there was a controversy which escalated at bock beer season as to whether Zibbe was on the right or left side of the street. Some believed the real bock beer was made on the left side of the street, directionally placing it on the south side of Berlin. Zibbe was on the right side of the street, thus the north side of Berlin. However very little of really known about the original Zibbe.

In the fourth decade of the 19th century Brewmaster Conrad Bachmann, who was born in Bavaria, established an ice and lager house which also had a small beer bar. This was when the first bock beer was made in the Spandau Mountains. Opposite it was a farmyard, which in 1846 was sold to Bachmann by a man named Hennig. In 1850 Bachmann built a saloon there and gave it the witty name "Zibbe," so you had bock beer on one side of the street and Zibbe on the other side. The original restaurant still exists but it doesn't lie right on the street. Rather it lies slightly recessed from the street with the mountain brewery next to it.

Incidentally there is still a beer in Germany which is called bock beer and is brewed in other cities besides Munich. Already in the 14th century a similar designation existed in Breslau, Silesia. "Scheps" (Schnaps) was brewed there and it was forbidden to import Silesian* beer in order to guarantee sufficient sale of schnaps. A beer war erupted, which was called the "Pfaffenkrieg" [The Priests War] (1380-1381) because the priests did not want to share their Silesian beer. The Scheps side won over the Silesians and the priests were able to enjoy their favorite drink but not share it with others. The word "Schneps" was also adopted in Bavaria as a beer name and it cannot be ruled out that it came into being at the same time as the term bock beer.

* Translator's Note: The text indicates the beer was brewed in Schweidnitz, Silesia which is now Swidnica, Poland.

March 13, 1925 page 9

What Every German in America Should Know


The First Victim in the War for American Independence was a German Boy

Mr. Karl Bänsch, former president of the Wisconsin Historical Society, member of the Historical Society of America, and the Mississippi Valley Historical Association has created a meritorious work based on material found in various archives. The power of this discovery should not be underestimated for it provides proof that the German element in America participated in the war for independence. It's well known that countless German colonists served in Washington's army. Since the establishment of the Steuben Association German Americans have known about General Steuben, a former Prussian officer, his troops and their fighting ability, the selfless performance of their duties, and their willigness to sacrifice.

Mr. Bänsch now provides documented proof of a fact, which until now only few people have known although it may have prompted the start of hostilities between th 13 American colonies and the English motherland. The modest title is A Boston Boy: The first Martyr for America's Freedom. Mr. Bänsch is publishing to book himself. It's being printed by George Bauter Publishing Co. of Menasha, Wisconsin. This little book describes in detail how Christopher Snider, son of a poor German immigrant, gave up his young life during a bloody clash in Boston. The circumstances under which this clash occurred are interesting and are briefly but clearly described below so that all Germans in America are in a position to correctly assert that the first casualty in the battle for America's freedom was one of their own countrymen.

We know that sentiments against England which led to the war for American independence began in Massachusetts and Boston. It was prompted by Boston businessmen who were against the excessive import and export taxes which England had levied on the American colonies in order to alleviate the tax burden under which the English motherland suffered. Boston merchants eventually decided to boycott all wares coming from England until England reduced taxes. All Boston merchants agreed to the boycott except for 16 merchants who continued to do business with England. The participating businessmen talked with the 16 non-boycotting members, who had been ostracized. At first 8 businessmen agreed to observe the boycott, then another 4 joined, which left only 4 merchants who refused to observe the boycott. These 4 suffered the displeasure of the majority. They were harassed in a manner which seems mild in comparison to today's boycott methods.

Boycott methods included the posting of signs in front of the four houses belonging to the businessmen continuing to do business with England. Usually the sign had a face painted on it and a hand pointed towards the house in which the businessman lived. The sign indicated that people should not buy anything from him. One such sign with hand was placed in front of merchant Theophilus Lillie's house by some boys at play. Ebenezer Richardson, a man of dubious reputation, came over and told the boys to remove the sign. The boys refused and ridiculed Richardson. Seeing there was nothing he could do, Richardson went back in the house. The boys now stood in front of his house and jeered, as boys are prone to do. Upset by this, Richardson grabbed a rifle and threatened to shoot through his window. When the threat accomplished nothing Richardson aimed and shot, hitting Sammy Gove, son of Captain John Gove, and injuring his hand. Richardson shot a second time and hit eleven-year-old Christopher Snider with a mortal wound to the chest. Despite receiving care from a physician Snyder [sic] died that evening. A large crowd gathered outside Richardson's house after the shooting. Eventually they stormed the house and took Richardson by surprise. It took much effort to protect himself from the mob.

For those times there was an unheard-of number of people at the funeral of eleven-year-old Christopher Snider. All schools and stores were closed and over 1300 individuals and 30 coaches followed the coffin for the dead German boy.

A few days after the incident there was still such outrage among the people due to the murder of eleven-year-old Snider that new clashes broke out. Violence escalated and triggered events leading to the war for independence from England.

Thus the death of the eleven-year-old German boy unwittingly became a trigger in the hostilities between the 13 American colonies and the English motherland. His martyrdom for America's freedom prompted the movement which led to independence.

In an appendix of the book Mr. Bänsch provides additional valuable sources concerning the assertion that a young German boy was the first casualty in the war for independence.

Why the Tree Frog is Green


All frogs possess the ability to change their color. Even the tree frog and the green water frog can under certain circumstances take on darker coloring. According to the journal Umschau published in Frankfurt am Main, Berta Reinhold has performed numerous experiments to determine the many reasons whereby the green coloring of tree frogs is achieved. Initially it is light stimulus which triggers the frog to turn green. This happens outdoors in the summer however the color can be changed even when the frog is in a box. It can occur in glaring sunlight, in normal daylight filtered through colored glass, and even in a frog box filled with green leaves, colored paper, or fire-red, blue, yellow and white flowers. All these environments let the frog turn green. You can also take a dark frog and set him in wet or dry white sand and he'll turn green. However a green tree frog will immediately turn dark when placed in a box filled with moist earth. Then it is possible to have him turn gree by physical manipulation. Covering the leg or a different body part allows the covered section to turn green. The same occurs by pressing the skin. Whenever the circulation of the blood of the dark frog is undisturbed his skin takes on a yellow or green appearance. A dark frog grabbed as it dies turns yellowish green and a dead frog turns green. Heat rays, water scarcity, and drought can trigger the frog's skin to turn green.


The Musical Horse


A physician named Mousson-Lanauze, who studies the effect of music on the sick, mentioned some interesting observations on the influence of music on horses, which were then published in Umschau. The horse is a musical animal. Its entire stance, its head, ears and tail indicate that it becomes fully engaged by music. Some horses' eyes never leave the musician. Others remain standing motionless. Only timid or skittish animals become restless, paw the ground and move their ears until they get used to the music. It seems that the horses find the music pleasing since they exhibit no impatience. What's noteworthy is the fact that music seems to strongly influence their bladders and bowels. As soon as the first notes sound one sees them busy in those realms. With some there's also a strong expulsion of gas. The influence of music is more pronounced in young horses than in older horses. Also familiarity plays a role.


Pfortzheim, Baden. — Part of a new building on Belfort St. fell on the head of magician's apprentice Hans Karf. He died while being transported to the hospital.

March 23, 1925 page 1

George Washington responded in German to a Welcoming Address

Philadelphia, Pa. — The Chronicle of the German Pennsylvania Counties of Pennsylvania always provides an inexhaustible resource on the history of the United States and its German population.

We also see in the Philadephia Evening Bulletin a report on the family chronicle of the Zeller family of Momelsdorf, Pa. by Frank Zeller which establishes that George Washington once conducted a brief speech in German. This is all the more noteworthy because as great a statesman, army leader and patriot as George Washington was, he was in no way a linguistic genius.

As the Zeller family chronicle states, it was November 13, 1793 in which President George Washington visited old war comrade Peter R. Zeller at Seltzer House in Momelsdorf.

A spokesman for the residents of Momelsdorf delivered a welcoming speech in German to the president.

The chronicle further reports that the President responded in the German language.

April 3, 1925 page 2

New German Books at the Northside Library


The following German books have been added recently to the Northside branch of the Public Library:

Brausewetter - Die große Liebe [The Great Love]
Burg - Alles um Liebe [Everything about Love], in 5 books
Ganghofer - Das große Jagen [The Great Hunt]
Gersdorff - Ein Feigling [A Coward]
Hauptmann, G. - Der Narr in Christo: Emanual Quint [The Fool in Christ: Emanual Quint]
Hofmannsthal - Die Frau ohne Schatten [The Woman without a Shadow]
Reuter - Dörchläuchting
Schlicht - Der Gardegraf [The Nobleman of the Guard]
Stilgebauer - Der goldene Baum [The Golden Tree]
Tolstoi - Die Kreutzer Sonate [the Kreutzer Sonata]

April 3, 1925 page 2

The Toledo Blade writes: "A successful marriage is one in which the wife is the boss but doesn't know it." Just once we'd like to see a wife who's boss of the house and doesn't know it. And when the wife knows, the husband feels it even if he doesn't know it. We would like to amend the remark made by this newspaper: "A successful marriage is one in which the wife is the boss of the house but doesn't let her husband notice it."

April 3, 1925 page 4

25 Years in the Newspaper Business


Last week the German newspaper in Schenectady, the Schenectady Herold Journal, celebrated its silver anniversary along with Mr. Oswald E. Heck, who published the following article to commemorate the event:

"Twenty-five years have passed since the establishment of the German newspaper and the writer of these lines has worked there continually since its founding. Many happy memories and a few less pleasant ones hover before his mind. In a few words he wishes to say: There was a war, which plunged all of humanity into battle. What gives him joy now is the knowledge that along with his trusty tool, the German newspaper, he honorably fights for everything which is of interest to German-Americans and to the wellbeing of this country. Our newspaper forever stands for justice and truth with its eyes are wide open and this shall be our guiding principle for the future."

Mr. Heck is well known to this Union writer since we worked for many years together in Schenectady. He's a man who makes friend whereever he goes due to his good heart, his friendly manner, his resourcefulness, selflessness and fearlessness. It can truly be said that Schenectady has him to thank for a German newspaper of which the German community can be proud.

Mr. Heck's name is well known far beyond the boundries of Schenectady. He's made a name for himself which will live on when he is no longer among the living, especially because of his literary prowess. A few years ago he allowed some of his poetry to be published under the title Leben und Weben [Living and Moving]. The small volume contains wonderful German poetic works which have found a permanent place in many German homes. The book can still be purchased from Mr. Heck's publisher of the Schenectady Herold Journal.

May Mr. Heck be granted many more years presiding over the German newspaper for its own continued wellbeing and the general good of all the German community in Schenectady.

April 3, 1925 page 19

Surgery in the Middle Ages


"If it's a movable tumor, I'm going to cut it off with a red hot knife and at the same time cauterize the wound. If it's not movable, I'll open up the skin with a knife made of animal horn that's been soaked in aquafortis [nitric acid] then pop the tumor out with my finger." This is what Fabricius of Acquapendente taught at the end of the 16th century. This method of operating clearly identifies the high point of medical arts of that age. King Henry II of France was mortally wounded during a jousting tournament in 1559 when an opponent's lance pierced his forehead and eyes. The physicians on hand had four criminals killed by having splinters from a lance pierce their eyes and foreheads just so they could understand the nature of the king's wounds. Henry V of England (1413-1422) only had one physician with 15 soldiers at his command to assist him at the Battle of Agincourt for an army of 30,000 men. These soldiers had to participate in the battle first; only after the fighting were at the physician's disposal. As compensation for his service the physician received 1 Shilling a day, with which he had to pay for his food and shelter. Besides this he received a portion of the war booty. If his share surpassed twenty pounds he had to give a third of it to the king. During the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547) there were only 12 twelve physicians who treated wounds. Before they were able to practice their profession they had to undergo an examination conducted by the dean of St. Paul's Cathedral.

Multilingual Library for Ellis Island


Foreign Language Information Service


Thousands of immigrants, who each year must spend time on Ellis Island, receive food and lodging but in many cases are deprived of spiritual nourishment. They have nothing to read. All immigrants who come to this country are able to read and write since the immigration laws prohibit the entry of anyone who is illiterate. It's easily understandable that immigrants, who must spend many days and weeks waiting before they can determine whether they will be admitted or deported, would like books in their own mother tongues so they have something to keep themselves busy during the long wait.

A multilingual library on Ellis Island is therefore of great use. To build such an interesting and worthwhile library the Foreign Language Information Service has sent a series of books for the immigrants waiting on Ellis Island. A small start has been made with 86 books funded by the Foreign Language Information Service: 16 in German, 15 in Czech, 13 in Finnish, 9 in Polish, 9 in Russian, 8 in Serbo-Croatian, 6 in Slovenian, and 4 in French. In the course of the next few days more books will be added to the collection so that the foreign language library on Ellis Island can open with at least 100 volumes.

One might assume that all foreign-born Americans in the United States recognize the necessity for such books for immigrants temporarily housed on Ellis Island. Spiritual nourishment is just as much a human necessity as physical nourishment. One might also expect that many are indeed happy to contribute to this book collection. Everyone has a few books in their homes which are in good condition and no longer in use and which one might be willing to donate to those who have no books in their mother language. The Foreign Language Information Service therefore requests that generous members of the foreign language speaking public of the United States contribute books to the multilingual library for the immigrants on Ellis Island as part of a private initiative. Books may be mailed to the Research and Reference Bureau, Foreign Language Information Service, 119 West 41st St., New York City.

April 10, 1925 page 10

Immigration to Brazil


Disappointment awaits the Immigrant

With weapons dropped to the ground and Germany's declining economy, people are searching for an outlet to alleviate their misery. Many too hastily seek it by emigrating only to be sadly disappointed after they placed their hopes in South America. What they experienced was so horrible that they wanted to spare others the final disillusionment. The daily press in this country has already reported about this in detail, but we would like to discuss here the unnamed misery encountered in so many cases by those who were promised the mountains of gold in the Brazilian forests. Mostly it's laborers who scrape their last pennies together in order to escape the privation of the homeland. During the voyage with its costly but fine lodgings and food they place their hopes on ever more seductive dreams. However as soon as they leave the steamship they encounter the same misery they had just left behind. Many days of quarantine must be endured before they reach the target of their journey, which is usually the main city of Brazil. In the homeland the immigrants were promised that there were large plots of land, but people leaving the homeland usually have nothing in writing. The Brazilian authorities require written proof of land grant so all the promises are pure humbug. Most immigrants must make due dealing with grumpy agents without a conscience while trying to find work. Hard-working hands are always needed on the coffee plantations in the inner regions of the country. At first married men must leave wives and children in Rio. Some men leave their families their last spare pennies; others leave their families in the care of German benevolent organizations; most abandon them to an uncertain future. Departure between man and wife and between parents and children are naturally heartbreaking. The capitalism, which people turned their backs to in the old homeland, leers just as smuggly at the immigrant on the South American coast. But this brand of capitalism is more gruesome and brutal than the European kind. Every now and again those eager to emigrate received what they were promised before departure, as was the case in the region of St. Catharina. Initially they travel along a primal forest path into the country's interior. Sometimes there's a wagon for transport. Exhausted after the trek the traveler encounters the "shelter," a pitiful wooden hut with cracked walls which let in the wind and the rain. Three days later the colonization society provides a meager meal. Then the call: All hands move! for two to three more weeks in the direction of the land that they will receive from the Brazilian State, which is beyond untouched primal forests and steppes. They'll have to work clearing the path in order to earn their meager daily bread. Anyone who has the power and endurance and does not loose his courage slowly works his way forward. Most die miserably. In any case there is no income that first year. It's usually better for the colonist to get a cow, whose milk will be sold to a large yet often remote dairy. As attractive as the pictures of the Brazilian landscapes might be, one shouldn't be enticed by the fantastic misrepresentation. As stale as the bread of the homeland might taste, it's in no way fresher or tastier in the distant southern lands!

Not long ago L. Friedrichsen Publishers of Hamburg published an article by Adolf Bieler titled "Foreign Lands Guide," which clarified many points. It contained all noteworthy notices and necessary equipment for travel abroad. In South America only people knowledgable in farming were needed. Craftsmen of practically all branches would find it difficult to find work and white collar workers were absolutely not needed except for a few dentists and apothecaries. In any case no immigrant was going to find paradise. One would have to continually work harder as he would in the homeland just to keep his head above water. Savings which the individual brought with him usually did not last long. Good health, an iron will, a pair of strong arms, endurance and the ability to adapt to the land and its people are the primary requirements for any individual who is willing to risk the journey in hopes of finding a more comfortable existence.

                                                                                                                              (Berliner Vorwärts)

Caption under illustration reads" Colonist's House in Brazil"

A Modern Spirit

On Schreckenhorst, the age-old mount,
A horrid ghost wails sadly
From midnight until one AM
It haunts the high peak madly.

Several times I saw the spook,
It shrieked and flew around.
But then one day I saw the ghost
But it didn't make a sound.

On the next night I asked it,
"Why no screeching yesterday?"
It shrugged its shroud and answered
"I take time off on Sunday!"

One Kind of Person


Many people have the misfortune
Of losing their inner peace.
They'd rather grumble about others' happiness
Than quietly refill the breach.

Enfante Terrible

Fritz: Uncle, did the stork bring you too?

Uncle: Yes it did, from the Egyptian marshlands.

Fritz: That figures. Dad said you were a real swamp bird!

April 17, 1925 page 3

How Many Germans live in the World?


Within the boundries of its shrinking country there are 62 million Germans in Germany. However that's not even two thirds of the Germans living in the rest of the world. Germans living in other European and non-European countries total 32,525,000. Totals by individual countries are as follows: 60,000 in Denmark, Sweden and Norway; 150,000 in the Baltic lands and Finland; 2,400,000 in Poland and Danzig; 2,000,000 in Russia and the United Soviet States; 3,500,000 in Czechoslovakia; 800,000 in Greater Romania; 700,000 in the Southern Slavic region; 300,000 in Italy; 2,000,000 in Switzerland and Lichtenstein; 1,300,000 in France; 400,000 in Belgium and Luxemburg; 100,000 in the Netherlands and Great Britain; 25,000 in the Pyrennes and the Balkan Peninsula; 10,400,000 in the United States of North America and Canada; 10,000 in Mexico and Central America; 650,000 in South America; 40,000 in Africa; 30,000 in Asia (except for Russia); 10,000 in Australia; 6,100,000 in German Austria; 550,000 in Hungary.

April 17, 1925 page 10

Citizens Military Training Camp


From the Main Headquarters of the 98th Division of the United States Army the Union received the following letter for publication:

"In 1920 the National Defense Act was passed. In 1917 it was pointed out that 468.10% [sic] of our young men were unfit for military service or for defense of America. The Citizens Military Training Camps were established under the National Defense Act to train America's youth in case it is necessary to defend the United States.

"Congress found it advisable to create a system of training camps for young men aged 17 to 25. All expenses to and from the camp and during the stay are paid for by the government. It is a privilege and a duty of each American youth to go to these camps. It is the duty of every father and mother to send their young men to these camps so they may be trained and prepared to defend our Constitution and our country.

"These camps will be operated for thirty days each year either in July or August. In this region the camp for beginners is located in Plattsburg, N.Y. The full curriculum takes 30 days for four years, a total of 120 days. The first course is called the 'basic course,' the second course is called the 'red course,' the third is 'white,' and the fourth is 'blue.' Whoever completes the 4 years of 30 day courses and takes the exam may receive a commission in the United States Reserve Corps, which is a duty, a privilege, and a high honor for every American. Athletics will be taught at the camps.

"Young men make no commitment if they attend these camps for the first three years. They can leave and forget it. They also take on no obligation to join any military organization. However if they attend the fourth year they are obligated to join the Reserves as officers, provided they qualify, or as enlisted men if they do not.

"It should be understood that every young American should perform his duty as an America when he completes the full four-year curriculum and then joins the Reserves as a trained American who is physically, spiritually and morally prepared to defend America and its institutions — ready to perform his full duty as an American and a man.

"For application or further information write to the Chief of Staff, 98th Division, Federal Building, Syracuse,N.Y.

"Come to Plattsburg and train your bodies and spirits!

"Do it for America!"

Fishing Licenses


Governor Smith has signed Senator Truman's bill which states that beginning January 1, 1925 males above the age of 16 year, who wish to fish or hunt, must acquire a hunting and fishing license, which costs $1.25. Non-citizens can get said licenses directly from the Conservation Commission. Women do not need a license to fish.


New York — Four well-dressed bandits blew open three safes of the Reid Ice Cream Co. and escaped with $25,000. The watchman was bound and gagged.

April 25, 1925 page 1

Long Tall Plüskow dies in Kassel at the Age of 73.

Berlin — General von Plüskow died recently in Kassel. He was one in a series of Aide -de-Camps for the Kaiser and was known as the greatest officer in the German Army. In Berlin, where he commanded the Kaiser Alexander Guard Grenadier Regiment, he is still best known as "Long Tall Plüskow."

Plüskow was over 6 feet tall with a corresponding body width and his giant stature generally stirred up excitement. At the burial of President Felix Faure in Paris Plüskow acted as personal representative for the Kaiser. The Parisian Press, which paid much attention to the former Garde Major, was preoccupied with him and made the following witty remark: "He's called Plüskow because he's "plus que haut" (more than tall.) This was a play on words between the similar sounding Plüskow and "plus que haut."

The decease reached an age of 73 years. His military career began with the 1st Foot Guard Regiment.

May 8, 1925 page 3

The Painter and the Poet

Tell me, old friend, why is it that you never see in nature what you paint?

Do you ever see anything in nature that corresponds to how you speak?

May 8, 1925 page 8

A Look at the New German Harugari Temple being built in Syracuse

Here is a look at the new Harugari Temple in Syracuse. Construction will begin shortly at no. 515-517 Butternut St. The building will cost approximately $65,000 and it will be one of the most modern and best equipped association halls in Syracuse. You'll also find one of the largest and most elegant dancehalls in the city with a theater stage and dressing room for men and women. There will be a club meeting room, a dining room, a kitchen, a checkroom, a large club game room for billiards, etc. Plus there's room for a bowling alley and a roomy and beautiful janitor's residence. Demolition of old houses on the building site has already begun.

May 22, 1925 page 4

The Most Recent Immigration Statistics

The last Immigration Bureau has published the final complete report on immigration going to the end of March 1925. In the first nine months of the fiscal year 31,909 immigrants arrived from Germany; 621 from Austria; 176 from Danzig; 1,407 from Switzerland; 1,806 from Czechoslovakia; 475 from Hungary; 336 from Lithuania; 82 from Luxemburg; 3,581 from Poland; 914 from Rumania; 568 from Yuogslavia. Statistics covering ethnicity indicate that 37, 896 immigrants were of German ethnicity.

Immigrants from countries where there are quotas totalled 216,221 in the first nine months. There were 38,706 immigrants under age 16. 156,053 were between 16 and 44 years of age. 21,462 were over age 45.

Non-immigrants totalled 41,959 individuals in the first nine months. There were 10,662 visitors who come to this country on business and 13,203 people on pleasure trips. 185, 622 individuals came as non-quota immigrants to this country. The greater majority of these immigrants, 131,085, were native-born Canadians and Mexicans and Americans born in other countries. 47,088 people in this group were resident aliens returning from a visit. 2,350 were unmarried and under 18 years of age children born in foreign counties with American parents. 1,252 were students, 552 were clerics with their 246 wives and 416 children. Furthermore 167 professors came as non-quota immigrants in the first nine months of the fiscal year.

May 22, 1925 page 4

Two Germans supposedly played Traitors during the War


New York — The New York Times reported on an adventurous-sounding story coming out of Washington. According to the report two Germans, who fell into the hands of the Americans during the World War, betrayed their people by giving away important military secrets. Both are now in America and one of them became very wealthy.

Alvin Grothe, according to the report, was a German pilot whose plane was shot down behind American lines. Alfred Scholz was a corporal with the Ulan Cavalry Regiment. Dressed in their German uniforms, they interrogated German prisoners and gave the information to the Americans. Additionally Scholz betrayed the position of German batteries at St. Mihiel, so that the American artillery could silence their guns.

May 29, 1925 page 4

Ontario's Beer without a Kick


Buffalo, N.Y. — Wayne B. Wheeler, the General Counsel for the Anti Saloon League, made a detour from here to Canada with a friend in order to have that friend test the Canadian beer. The result of the test was as follows: "No kick, and absolutely no taste." Mr. Wheeler feels reassured and has returned to the American side of the border.

All of Canada went dry in 1917 under a wartime regulation.

Since then the Dominion's electorate has twice voted on the the prohibition question and the water lovers have won. Recently the provincial legislature of Ontario permitted the production of 4.4 percent beer. However the percentage is calculated by weight rather than by volume and it represents an actual alcohol content of 2.5 percent. This is even weaker than the 2.75 percent beer which was sold in the United States under wartime prohibition measures. The actual American prohibition standard estimated a half percentage of alcohol according to volume rather than weight.

Musical Director Sousa sues Lorillard Co. because It used his Picture in an Advertisement


New York — Because his name was used to advertise a five-pack of cigars for 15 cents, the famous musical director John Philip Sousa is suing the P. Lorillard Co. for $100,000.

His attorney says that Sousa's friends have teased him about it and have made him a laughing stock.


Tägliche Rundschau and Zeit merge.


Berlin — Stresemann's newspaper, Die Zeit, will merge with Tägliche Rundschau on June 1st. The latter's newspaper exhibits moderately conservative tendencies which would leave the left wing of the Volks Party without a mouthpiece. The editor of the Tägliche Rundschau, Heinrich Rippler, is not a Stresemann supporter.

June 5, 1925 page 6

Adolph Hitler without a Country

Munich, Bavaria — Adolph Hitler, former leader of the Bavarian Fascists, is now a man without a country. The Republic of Austria has revoked his citizenship and the Bavarian government has denied his request for citizenship. It's believed that Hitler will petition the government of the German Reich for citizenship.

June 5, 1925 page 9

The German Population in Venezuela


The Visit of the German Cruiseship "Berlin" and the Heartfelt Welcome

Written in Caracas:

The cadet training ship of the German Navy, the "Berlin", visited the port of La Guaira from February 7th through 11th while on its West-Indian training run. It was the first time since the war that the German Empire's Flag was shown in Venezuelan waters. Even in the years directly before the world war the Venezuelan ports were avoided by the Navy because of the presence or the fear of epidemic sicknesses. The cruiser "Freya" was the last ship to visit Puerto Cabella in 1910 before the plague infected the capital city. Luckily improvements in sanitation and energetic government regulations have succeeded in stamping out the yellow fever in the port cities. The commander of the cruiser, Naval Captain Wülfing v. Ditten, along with the majority of his officers and detached troop of cadets, visited Caracas, where they were formally greeted by the government and the German colonists.

The government hosted the German guests with its usual generousity in a house just meant for the occasion, in which a year earlier Italian Special Envoy Giurati and various Swedish and French naval officers had lodged. These days General Pershing is staying there while on his South American round trip. The German envoy and the German colonists competed with the Venezuelan government to make a favorable impression on the German guests and to give them an enjoyable and interesting stay. The Commander accompanied by Envoy v.d. Heyde paid a visit to President Gomez at his residence at Maracay on Lake Valencia to thank him for his hospitality. A extraordinarily warm reception was host by President General Juan Bicente Gomez, known for his fondness for Germans and his energetic statesmanship. He is to thank for Venezuela's not joining the side of the Entente during the World War.

Of the number of festive events we will only mention a few of general interest. After a ceremony for all official visitors, a wreath was laid at the grave of the Liberator (Simon Bolivar) in the National Pantheon. Participants then went to the neighboring street corner where a plaque in the German language commemorated that this was the spot where the house, in which Alexander von Humboldt lived during his stay in Caracas from December 1799 to February 1800, was destroyed by the earthquake of 1812. At the site of the decorated plaque Envoy v.d. Heyde noted the service Humboldt had performed in the exploration of Venezuela and the high honor which is still maintained for him to this day. Perpetuating the memory of the German scholar it was also mentioned that a young Venezuelan of German heritage, Eduardo Rohl, found in old periodicals and single published works articles written by Venezuelan homeland researcher Aristides Rojas (died 1894) memorializing Humboldt's work in Venezuela. The richly illustrated Humboldtiana volumes unite these articles and make them accessible to a wider circle.

The executive board of the German school, which has been here for more than a quarter of a century, had the great idea of postponing the dedication of the new schoolhouse until the beginning of the new year when the cruiser "Berlin" arrived. The ceremony gained special meaning due to the presence of the representative of the Navy. The school, which preserves German values among the German colonists and performs extraordinary service among the Venezuelan population, suffered for years due to the lack of its own home. After the heavy burden of the war years it seemed ever more urgent to resolve this problem. The progressive conversion of the inner city into a business district resulted in fewer and fewer single homes at higher rental prices. Cooperation among all the participating factions led to raising sufficient funds for the purchase and renovation of a house — an interest-bearing loan from the capital fund of the German Association here in Venezuela amounting to 55,000 Bolivars supplemented by a grant from the German government and a significant sum which Envoy v.d. Heyde collected from banks, firms in Hamburg and friends. A building was purchased in a central location for 59,000 Bolivars with a complete renovation by Austrian architect Blasnitz to turn it into an appropriate schoolhouse.

At the dedication ceremony the chairman of the school board, Counsel Hauck, conducted the address in which the Envoy received recognition for his great service and was named honorary chairman. Mr. von der Heyde showed his gratitude with a patriotic speech and after a few choice words from the Commander the beautiful ceremony closed with the song "Deutschland, Deutschland über alles."

A field trip into the beautiful mountain region to Encanto Station of the Germany-Venezuela Railroad gave the naval guests the opportunity to see the facilities and operation for the grand German enterprise in Venezuela and the magnificent parkgrounds, which the former many-year director of the railroad, G. Knoop, had created in the Encanto Valley. The valley and the health resort near Caracas called Los Teques became the jewels of the German Railroad. The grounds had been destroyed by many centuries of deforestation. They became a perfect example of the possibility of reforestation even for the natives. No other than President Gomez followed the example on his properties in Caracas and Maracay. The plant material primarily came from the railroad's nurseries. In the previous year 12,000 young eucalyptus trees were planted in the lowlands around Lake Valencia.


Remarkable Paths to Marriage


Everyone knows that love is inventive. The god of love has amazing ways and means of bringing two hearts together. Among the strangest messages reported in the English magazines is the letter in a bottle. In the small town of New Liberty in the United States the girls had little prospects of marriage because there were only a few young men. One eager-to-marry beauty placed a description of her charms and her desire to find a good man in a bottle and placed it in the tiny stream, knowing that it flowed into the mighty Mississippi. The bottle made it to the Mississippi and was accidentally fished out by a young farmer in Louisianna, who answered the letter. A long exchange of letters ensued and when the two finally met they thought they would make the bond for life because they had known each other for so long.

An egg is also a novel messenger of love. The daughter of a chicken farmer, who collected eggs daily and packed them for shipment, used an egg to send her address and express her desire for marriage. When the shipment made its way from her home in Missouri to New York it was placed in a cold room where many employees saw the wonderful inscription. Then the egg made its way to its final destination in New London, Connecticut. A young clerk found the egg at this breakfast table. By the time he sent his proposal to the lovely lady she had already received two other letters. However she chose the consumer of the egg as the true addressee.

A young lady was extremely surprised when at the previous night's Christmas party she found a message of love in a nut that she cracked open. A young planter in Brazil had chosen this unusual method. He bored a hole in the nut and inserted his rolled-up love note into it, then sealed the hole with wax so it wouldn't be noticed. The nut with the "sweet contents" did its job because the planter and the lady became a happy couple.

June 19, 1925 page 4

American Praise for German Culture

After his recent return from Europe the well-known American author Sinclair Lewis, creator of the much-read novels Main Street, Babbitt, and Arrowsmith, had high praise for the German people. He said Germany was the only European country which read, respected, and treasured modern American literature. One might have expected that England and France, or Italy and Spain would enjoy reading about modern American life whereas the land of the "Barbarians" would despise and shun it.

Lewis commented "I found that throughout Germany and Austria there was intense interest in American literature. Whereever I went German journalists, bankers, businessmen, teachers, artists, writers and even the common man on the street in Vienna, Munich, and Berlin would ask me, Who are your newest authors? What are the titles of the best new books being published? They wanted to know which short stories best represented modern America. They wanted to know about our stories and our newest poetry. I found that they were all well acquainted with Carl Sandburg, Lindsay Hergesheimer, Mencken, Theodor Dreiser, Jack London, Sherwood anderson and of course, Walt Whitman."

One might also add that the Germans are better acquainted with Longfellow, Edgar Allan Poe, Cooper, Emerson, James Russell Lowell, Washington Irving and other representatives of America's past than Americans.

"In France and Italy," Lewis continued, "there's as good as no interest in American literary events." Lewis further declared "On the continent there are no greater indicators of literary power and magnitude than England and Germany." In Germany they follow all other countries' trends and that includes those of the United States. No scientific, technical or political conference can be held in Germany without America occupying an important place in the discussion.

All this throws a peculiar light on the assertion of Germany's lack of culture and barbaric intellectual backwardness, as we encountered so often during the war years.

June 26, 1925 page 8

German Song is fading away


The Sängerfest in Buffalo followed a Noble Path — Utica Männerchor wins First Place — Syracuse Liederkranz takes 2nd and Arion, Syracuse takes 3rd Place.


The Syracuse Liederkranz and Arion singing societies have returned after winning prizes at the Sängerfest in Buffalo, which in every way followed a noble path at the start of the week. In the first category the Liederkranz had to be satisfied with 2nd place and the Arion had to make due with 3rd place as the Utica Männerchor took first place in singing competition. It must be said that both of our singing societies performed magnificently and despite the division of prizes they won the hearts of the audience, which does not have visible prizes to bestow. Both societies are satisfied with the results and sincerely extend the palm of victory to the Utica Männerchor.

The opening of the 9th Song Festival of the Central New York Singing Society took place on Sunday afternoon at 4 PM with a festival banquet. Over 1000 people attended. The mayor was greeted with thunderous applause as he entered the hall. He delivered to the singers a speech peppered with humor and he even used the German language for a portion of it. Various other addresses also took place.

The opening concert at the Elmwood Music Hall was performed by the United Singing Societies of Buffalo. Harmony was provided by the mixed chorus. Mr. Aloys Stockmann was the festival director. He is also musical director of the Central New York Singing Society and many large singing societies in Buffalo.

Weber's Jubel Overture opened the evening. The melodies flowed in powerful swells forming the basis for artistic beauty which persisted throughout the entire evening. The choral work, "Hab Sonne im Herzen" [Have the Sun in Your Heart] by Stockmann and "Zur neuen Welt" [To the New World] by Uthmann demonstrated the United Singers of Buffalo's artistic mastery and maturity which signified high achievement for the singers and reward for the public.

"In gehobener Stimmung" [In a sublime mood,] an orchestral work by Ludwig Bonvin, was a performance of magnificent subtlety. The rendition demonstrated a firm grasp of the spirit that goes into the creative process.

The solistist for the evening, Mrs. Gertrud Rautenberg-Zimmermann, daughter of Society President Raytenberg, filled everyone's hearts with pure joy wuth her rich singing. "Wach auf" [Wake up] from the opera"Die Meistersinger" by Wagner closed the evening.

The center of interest for the public at large as well as for the singing societies was the singing contest. Competition for the victory laurel was uncommonly heated and sharp.

The societies in the third category sang in this order:

  1. Rondout Social Männerchor, Oswego, N.Y.
  2. Oswego Liederkranz, Oswego, N.Y.
  3. Beethoven Männerchor, Ilion, N.Y.

In the second category only one society sang, the Germania Singing Society, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

The Concordia of Gloversville, N.Y. opened the competition for the first category. After its fine performance came an equally fine one by the smaller Beethoven Männerchor of Ilion, N.Y. The Utica Männerchor also offered a superb performance. Besides these two societies the following sang in the first category: Albany Männerchor, Albany, N.Y.; Syracuse Liederkranz, Syracuse, N.Y.; Teutonia Liedertafel, Rochester, N.Y.; Schenectady Turner Männerchor, Schenectady, N.Y.; Troy Männerchor, Troy, N.Y.; Arion Gesangverein, Syracuse, N.Y.

If one evaluates the average outputs of these singing competitions one can only come to the conclusion that they produce the best and most beautiful performances possible. One was amazed by each and every presentation. And amid this awe for the various large and small societies one naturally thinks about how much effort, diligence and joy must have been expended to produce such performances.

The Alliance concert at the Elmwood Music Hall on Monday evening was attended by over one thousand people and was a first rate success. Soloists included Miss Ethel Hayden, soprano, and Mr. Gottlieb Frank, baritone. They both offered up artfully significant performances. Like the evening before the public listened attentively to the magnificent selections offered by the program. The men's choral performances often elicited enthusiastic applause. "Deutsche Lied," [by Anton Bruckner?] blessed by a thousand powerful voices, filled the heart with happiness and pure joy and offered all listeners unforgettable enjoyment. Festival and Alliance conductor Alois Stockmann was completely up to the difficult task.

Magnificent weather on the third day favored the brothers in song who took a trip to Niagara Falls with their wives to view nature's wonder and beauty, of which they had previously only heard or read about. Despite the many enticements in and around Niagara Falls the singers promptly returned to Buffalo at noontime since they were singing outdoors at the McKinley Monument at 1:30.

Amid the applause of many thousands of people the men's choir performed the following choral works: "Das ist der Tag des Herrn" [This is the Day of the Lord]; "Nach der Heimat möcht' Ich wieder" [I would like to go back to the Homeland]; and the "Star Spangled Banner." Right afterwards there was a parade for both the visiting and resident singing societies and two powerful bands, which went down Walden Ave. to Genesee St. and then to Genesee Park where the prizes were distributed. At the head of the parade were dignataries, members of the festival committee, and the flag bearers. Behind to flags and the music came the first group with the ten visiting societies in alphabetical order: Albany Männerchor, Albany; Arion Gesangverein, Syracuse; Beethoven Männerchor, Ilion; Concordia, Gloversville; Germania, Poughkeepsie; Oswego Liederkranz, Oswego; Rondout Social Männerchor, Kingston Schenectady; Syracuse Liederkranz, Syracuse.

The second group of visiting societies in alphabetical order were as follows: Teutonia Liederkranz, Rochester; Troy Männerchor, Troy; Utica Männerchor, Utica.

After these societies came the six Buffalo singing societies in the following order; Arbeiter Liederkranz; Buffalo Deutscher Männerchor; Harugari Frohsinn; Männerchor Bavaria; Schwäbischer Sängerbund; Teutonia Liederkranz.

At the end of the festival parade there was an automobile procession of the United Singers of Buffalo along with the visiting female participants.

The Distribution of Prizes

The Allied Music Committee met with the three prize judges: Dr. Lulek of Chicago, who evaluated pronunciation and clarity of tone; Mr. Karl Reckzeh of Chicago, who evaluated intonation and interpretation of direction; and Professor Brückner of Detroit, who evaluated nuancing, phrasing and precision.The results were announced by Mr. Joseph Scheible of Buffalo from the orchestral podium.

First Category

First place and new holder of the competition trophy: Utica Männerchor, Utica, N.Y. Conductor Johannes Magendanz; President Geo. W. Gammel. 139 Points

Second place and new holder of the competition trophy: Syracuse Liederkranz, Syracuse. Conductor Albert Känzlen; President Philip R. Heldmann. 134 Points.

Third place: Arion Gesangverein, Syracuse, N.Y. Conductor Karl Altmann; President Otto Schweikert. 115 Points.

Second Category

Only one society sang in this category, the Germania Singing Society of Poughkeepsie, N.Y. which received a total of 132 Points. The society won a Black Forest cuckoo clock donated by Mr. Flieg of Syracuse which shall decorate the society's hall. The conductor was Jack Stumpf and the president was Mr. Gust.

Third Category

First Place: Beethoven Männerchor, Ilion, N.Y. Conductor M. Stieber; President Henry Hartmann. 120 Points.

Second Place: Oswego Liederkranz, Oswego, N.Y. Conductor Steven Healey; President Richard Schultz. 91 Points.

Third Prize: Rondout Social Männerchor. Conductor Jack Stumpf; President Fred Menzel. 65 Points. The prize was an artfully executed certificate.

After the distribution of the prizes there was a plesant social event in Genesee Park. Hours later the groups dispersed one after the other and the 9th Sängerfest of the Central New York Sängerbund slipped into history.

Thinking back to the session it must be stated that everything proceeded in a very orderly fashion and was well organized. The city and the large festival committee worked selflessly and certainly deserve the gratitude of the visiting singing societies. The festival flowed seamlessly and it will be remembered as one of the most beautiul events held by the Alliance.

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Translation by Susan Kriegbaum-Hanks