Between the World Wars: Articles from the Syracuse Union, available through the New York State Newspaper Project

January - June 1927

January 21, 1927 page 3

Interesting Words


How many words came to be used in the German Language

The attempt to determine the origin and meaning of words is ancient and as old as language itself. Folk etymology, sound, and sense have changed randomly and a good portion of any language has a good many sins on its conscience. The word Blutegal [leech] was transformed to Igel [hedgehog], the lanzknecht [lancer] became the landsknecht [mercenrary], and Skorbut [scurvy, old style] became Scharbock [scurvy, current usage.] Things weren't any better for the etymology of the earlier times. The Middle Ages achieved truly horrible linguistic changes. Today etymology is an important subdivision of linguistic science.

We find a selection of especially remarkable etymologies and definitions in a booklet by E.C. Werthenau titled Interessante Wörter [Interesting Words.] This small reference work is written for the readers who do not possess an intimate knowledge of linguistics but wish to acquire a basic knowledge of etymology. Students and teachers might find this little tome useful. Since children learn language only in its current usage they have no idea of its inner workings and transformation. From this sleek and well-written booklet we get some valuable information on etymology.

Abgefeimt. Feim means foam; Seim is syrup; abgefeimt or abgeseimt means skimmed. It also means worthless, useless and even harmful. One thinks of the phrase "Abschaum der Menschheit" [Scum of humanity or scum of the earth.]

Alkohol, an Arabic word. Al is the article, kohol refers to one not being in his right mind. Bringing the article and noun together can refer to eye cover-up or eye make-up.

Apfelsine refers to a Chinese apple, a germanization of the French term pomme de Sine [Apple from China, which actually refers to oranges.] Similarly Pfirsich (Peach) comes from the Persian malum persicum for Persian apple.

Balkon refers to the Balkans. A word of German origin coming from the wandering and romanized germanic people so changed that its etymology cannot be easily recognized. Other such words include: Liste (list) from Leiste (ledge); Fauteuil (armchair) from Faltstuhl (folding chair); Boulevard from Bollwerk (rampart); Bankett (banquet) from Bank (bench).

Brief (letter). Actual meaning is short writing, coming from the Middle Latin breve. Brevier (breviary or extract) from word the same root — aus brevarium — from the same root.

Deut (bit or trifle). When someone says "nicht für ein Deut Verstand" he means "not a bit of intellect." The smallest Netherland coin is a duit.

Eiland (island) from Einlant (one land) meaning a separated piece of land.

Eisbein (ice leg) has nothing to do with ice, rather it means hip bone.

Fiaker. Small, light carriages for rent. Coming from fiacre, a 17th century word in Paris. The name is based on the fact that St. Fiacre was the patron saint and protector of houses out of which carriages were rented.

Fuss (foot). The expression "living on large feet" goes back to the Middle Age custom of wearing shoes with the longest pointy toes possible.

Gelichter (rabble). Has nothing to do with Licht (light), rather it comes from the Middle High German gelich meaning gleich (similar) and referring to contemporaries of a similar kind.

Groschen is a thick penny; derived from the Latin work grossus meaning thick.

Herberge (lodging house) where the Heer (army) lodges.

Herzog is the army leader (Heer) who moves (zog) the troops.

Kaffer is an uneducated and unsavory human being. Taken from the Arabic word Kafir meaning non-believer.

Mansarde (attic). Comes from the French architect Mansard, who introduced the Mansard roof.

Ostern (Easter) is originally an old Indian spring feast which got its name from the goddess Ostara, the radiant, salvation bringing deity of dawn and spring.

Schalk (rogue) previously meant a servant and was used in connection with a servile-minded human. Gradually this word and other similar words like Schelm (seducer or scoundrel) became nuances of ignoble characters. Today both words are usually used to describe playful people.

Turnen (gymnastics) taken from the name ""Turnvater" Jahn (Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, Father of German Gymnastics), who fashioned it from the root word Tournier, meaning turn, spin, swing.

Weichbild: town or city district. In olden days a boundry was indicated on a landmark or pole with individual heraldry signs. Weich from the Latin vicus, meaning village. In Old High German wich meant region and Weichbild meant Ortsbild (view of a locality).

Wonnemonat (month of delight) is the poetic name for the month of May but previously it was the name for the month itself. Wonne here means pasture. The month Wonne was also called Weide (pasture). An old legal form placeed "Wonn and Weid" as synonyms next to each other. Our term "Augenweide" (feast for the eyes) and the phrase "sich an etwas weiden" (feast your eyes on something) are recognized as deriving from "Wonne und Weide".


Old German Empire Banknotes Swindle Attempt


Recently the illustrated newspapers in the Netherlands have published an advertisement from the Schraver Firm of Dubbeldam in which individuals who have old German Empire banknotes are requested to inform the Dubbeldam firm. The announcement indicated that the notes were not worthless. Anyone who contacts the firm will be sent a circular in which it was communicated in so-many words that the Schraver Firm knew of a means in which to force the German State to take back the banknotes at an exchange rate of sixty Dutch cents per Mark.

However the circular also stated that the Schraver Firm shall receive one cent per Mark for conducting negotiations with serious banknote owners. The fee was one cent per thousand inflation era Mark notes. Four percent interest will be paid for a period of ten years. The firm will strive to assemble so many Mark notes that one can count on a successful outcome. In closing, the circular publisher declared that no one will obtain information about the firm because the matter must be kept a secret until such time things are firmly enough established so parasites cannot cause any problems. All these conditions made the enterprise seem highly suspect. The Dutch police began to take interest in the affair and established that the owner of the Dubbeldam Mark recovery firm was a coffee brewer born in Germany whose coffeehouse in Dubbeldam had a record of bad business practices. Nonetheless the coffee brewer lived a life of luxury. Supposedly his business endeavor had already found many people who paid the fee but would never see their money again.


An Expensive Hunting Trip


That was an expensive rabbit which three automobile dealers from Lyon were hunting! They stood before the court magistrate in Bourg because they had been hunting at night with the help of the headlights from the cars in which they had arrived. They were acting like poachers with torches. Each was sentenced to fifteen days in jail and fined 10,000 Francs. Additionally they were declared ineligible for hunting permits anywhere in France for the next five years. And then the matter still wasn't settled. The court further sentenced the three miscreants, members of a large hunting association who treated the criminal proceedings as a private matter, had to pay another thousand Francs. The automobile and the rifle the three dealers used were confiscated and could only be released once they paid ten thousand Francs for the automobile and six hundred Francs for the rifle. At the time that they had engaged in their nighttime adventure the three auto dealers had their own rabbit, which had been supplied by a poacher. 41,600 Francs, fifteen days each in jail, loss of hunting privileges for five years, and what they paid for the rabbit — that's an expensive evening's entertainment


Rummelsburg, Pomerania. On a section of his hunting grounds an estate owner was found dead with a gunshot wound near Rummelsburg. It is assumed that the hunter's gun had accidentally discharged.

January 28, 1927 page 4

Kissing Shortens Life-Expectancy


Learned physicians in San Francisco have issued a warning that each kiss shortens life expectancy by three minutes. A human heart beats only about 1,545,264,000 times and when you kiss the heart beats 90 instead of 70 times. It takes 10 minutes before the heart rate returns to normal, which means that the heart beats 300 more time. In other words, three minutes of one's lifetime is lost. — What a pity that we're just finding this out now after we've already shortened our lives perhaps by years. — And yet every once in while a heart-pounding kiss is more than worth 3 minutes of life.

January 28, 1927 page 8

German-American elected Bank President

Caption under photograph reads: Mr. Adolf H. Schwarz

The German-American community of this city can be especially proud at the election of Mr. Adolph [sic] H. Schwarz as president as the Onondaga County Savings Bank. The election of Mr. Schwarz took place at the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees and he is successor to Henry R. Rowling, who has tendered his resignation at the age of 84 years.

Charles A. Hudson, former 2nd vice-president, was elected 1st vice-president; Albert E. McChesney, previously secretary, became 2nd vice-president, and William W. Wiard was elected the new secretary.

These well-known men were re-elected: Mr. Herman J. Engelhardt as treasurer of the bank; John E. Hunt, assistant treasurer; Ralph E. Guernsey, assistant secretary; and Charles L. Stone, attorney.

Mr. Schwarz immediately took over the office of president of the Onondaga County Savings Bank and resigned as representative of the Lehigh Valley Coal Sales Company for Eastern Canada so that he can completely and responsibly dedicate himself to his new post.

Mr. Schwarz was born in Cologne on the Rhine, Germany and came with his parents to America at age 5. He attended school in Staten Island and later in Binghamton, where he also obtained a position with the Erie Railroad.

In 1872 Mr. Schwarz took over management of the agency of the Syracuse, Binghamton & New York Railroad in Syracuse. In 1886 he was promoted to superintendent of the Syracuse Division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad. Later the Utica Division also came under his leadership.

Mr. Schwarz left the railroad to take over the management of the W.R. River Coal Company of Syracuse in 1902. Three years later the River Company was taken over by the Lehigh Valley Coal Company, which dealt only in the wholesale business and Mr. Schwarz was appointed agent in East New York and Eastern Canada, the post he held until recently.

Mr. Schwarz travelled to Germany many times. He and his family were there shortly before the World War. He was visiting the home of his birth in Cologne. Mr. Schwarz and his wife (formerly Miss Mary C. Tefft of Syracuse) live in Skaneateles during the summer months. In the winter months their home is the Onondaga Hotel. They have two children; William Schwarz, an artist painter living in Meriton Pa. and Mrs. L.T. Haight in Syracuse.

Our representative had the pleasure on Monday of personally meeting Mr. Schwarz in his office at the Onondaga County Savings Bank and congratulating him on becoming head of the bank. It's surprising how splendidly and error-free he speaks German today despite his coming to America at age 5. His wife and children also speak German extremely well.

The entire German community of this city can take pride in the election of Mr. Schwarz as president of the bank and his treasurer, Mr. Herman J. Engelhardt, who incidentally is also a German. Amid the many well-wishes Mr. Schwarz received was one by Mr. Wilhelm Schmidt, which went as follows:

Honor to him to whom honor is due!

As it was made known to me
that such high office
was bestowed upon a German-American
I became newly aware
that the Stars and Stripes flag
had proudly been grasped by the right man
and I congratulate him
with all my heart.
                                          Wilhelm Schmidt.

All German-Americans are included in his congratulations, none the least the Syracuse Union, which was the first to pose the question to Mr. Schwarz as he took office as president of the bank, whether the bank would consider reinstating its advertising in the city's German newspaper.

The German community of our city needs such men who can restore its honor and return it to the place of power which it once possessed. Mr. Schwarz is ready to personally respond to any inquiries in the German language. His friendly demeanor and lovable nature will soon insure him a broad circle of friends.

We extend our congratulations!

February 4, 1927 page 5

Report from
The Onondaga County Savings Bank
Syracuse, N.Y. January 1, 1927



Bonds and Mortgages:                             $26,799,369.86
United States Bonds:                                    2,000,000.00
Bonds from other States:                              3,000,000.00
City Bonds from other States:                      1,405,000.00
Bonds from Counties in this State:                   10,000.00
Bonds from Villages in this State:                    25,000.00
Railroad Mortgage Bonds:                           5,679,968.00
Bankhouse and Property:                                 760,000.00
Accruing Interest, etc.:                                     595,408.06
Cash on Hand:                                                 194,162.23
Cash in Banks and Trust Companies:           1,375,230.46



Owed to Depositers:                                $36,248,452.47
Outstanding Treasury Checks:                         81,980.38
Reserved for Taxes:                                          41,500.00
Surplus- Par Value:                                      5,472,205.76


Interest-Bearing Accounts from $1 to $7,500

Friday, February 4, 1917 page 1

February 4, 1927 page 1

German Comrades


Invited to join the New York State Militia

New York. Captain John W. Wilday of Battery C of the 244th Artillery Regiment of the New York National Guard with Headquarters at No. 125 West 14th St. has sent the following letter to Mr. Charles A. Oberwager, President of the United States German Association:

"The war is over and many Germans who fought against us in the World War have since settled in this country and become good American citizens. Our regiment has commissioned me to invite them to become members of the State Militia (National Guard) and especially our regiment.

"I convey this important message and offer which, if accepted, might help these men forget the unpleasant circumstances of the past by realizing service to their adopted fatherland. Our regiment is the first to make such an offer and we extend the hand of friendship and comradery."

The proposal which Captain Wilday has made in the name of his regiment will be deliberated at the next delegate meeting of the United States German Association.


Spring weather arrived yesterday and is expected to last for a considerable time.

February 11, 1927 page 5

Dr. Francis E. Engelhardt Dead


The city's chemist for 43 years, he reached the ripe old age of 91 years.

Last week we reported the illness of Dr. Francis E. Engelhardt of 510 Bellevue Ave. Today we must report his death, which occurred Tuesday night. He was 91 years old.

Mr. Engelhardt was born on June 23, 1835 in the Province of Hannover, Germany. After graduating from the public schools there he attended the University of Göttingen, where he studied the natural sciences. After his graduation he worked for a time as the assistant to famous chemist Professor Frederick Wohler.

In 1857 he came to America in order to work for 10 months as an assistant professor of chemistry at Amherst College. From there he went to Philadelphia where he functioned as a consulting chemist for the Charles Ellis Company and various sugar refining facilities. A few years later he became an assistant professor for Prof. Charles H. Joy of Columbia College, which is now Columbia University. Then he was hired as a professor of chemistry and natural science at St. Francis Xavier College in New York City.

In 1869 Dr. Engelhardt came to Syracuse to accept a post as chemist for the Salt Company of Onondaga. Later he was appointed chemist for the "Onondaga Salt Spring Reservation" and the State Health Advisory Board appointed him expert for inspection of wine, liquor, and beer.

The late Mayor Belden appointed him on April 2, 1877 City Chemist and Milk Inspector, a new office of the city government. He held this post until his retirement on January 1, 1920.

We have him to thank for the establishment here of the Syracuse Branch of the Solway Process Company. It was due to his experience and knowledge in the fields of chemistry and geology that Syracuse today has such excellent water service operations at Skaneateles Lake. His advice was highly sought after and greatly esteemed.

On September 8, 1870 he married Miss Anna Miller. who preceded him in death on November 30, 1918. He leaves behind two sons, Dr. Frank G. Engelhardt and Herman J. Engelhardt, treasurer of the Onondaga County Savings Bank; and two daughters, Beatice and Anna Engelhardt.

Death has taken this uncommonly hardworking man who was greatly respected and loved among all segments of the population.

The funeral will proceed on Friday morning at 9 o'clock from the house of morning then around 9:30 from the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception to the Assumption Cemetery.

The following members of the German Pioneer Society will function as honorary coffin bearers: Joseph Haas, Augustus Rolle, Ludwig Trage, William Dopfell, Egidus Gass, and Jakob Geis.

February 11, 1927 page 4

The One Dollar
is welcome at the
Onondaga County Savings Bank
Syracuse, N.Y.

The largest savings bank in Central
and northern New York.

Over $4,000,000 in Assets

Deposit your savings in a
Full Service Savings Bank.

Last Quarterly Dividend
4% per annum.

We have piggy banks. Come on in
and pick one up.
The bank is open Monday evenings
from 6 until 8 PM.

February 18, 1927 page 6

Germany-Austria Merger


Here in this country we hear little about the movement currently in place to consolidate the two great German countries, Germany and Austria. Although this is to be expected of the most enthusiastic supporters of the idea the fact is, working towards the merger is of invaluable merit for Germans throughout the entire world.

The Austrian-German People's League is especially active in this cause to annex Austria to Germany based on the right of self-determination and minority protections. This is being supported with rallies, lectures, and publications. A few days ago we received a brochure which was the printed text of a lecture given by Dr. Karl Renner, a former Austrian Chancellor of State. The lecture was held October 17, 1926 at a meeting of the Austrian-German People's League. We've printed a few passages here of this extraordinarily well-defined and cogent lecture which should awaken the interest of our readers to this important issue:

"The European treaty system of 1919 clearly reveals two antithetical elements. Firstly it implies the termination of past issues: a thousand years of rivalry among the continent's populations, which exploded in the wink of an eye into dreadful hate and world war, as witnessed by the dictates of the victors demanding compensation through the partitioning of country borders and limitations on state governance. The partitioning was not completed with the stoic patience of the arbitrator but rather with haste during the heat of engagement — organizing amid weapons. It's no wonder that a thousand years of hatred and a millennium of injustice are the truly evil legacy of a violent past in which peace treaties seem as encrusted as an old civilization buried in sedimentary rock.

"Until 1914 the major issues on the European mainland were centered on the three great nations of France, Germany, and Italy (with wars between 1848 - 1870.) In the monarchies of the Habsburgs, the Romanovs and the Sultans their concerns were limited to the integrity of their borders. The World War destroyed the three Middle Age monarchies and the field of interest extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans and down to the Persian Gulf. The face of Europe as well as that of the north and the Middle East changed from the ground up. Even the Union of the Soviet Republic became a narrower or looser confederacy of national states. Atlases of 1914 are no longer needed. Atlases of 1926 reveal upon first look the materialization of nation-state concepts. The populated areas of nations determine the perimeters of the countries but the legitimate sovereignty of these nations and national machines is the pure instrument of power within their hands.

Undoubtedly the World War was above all else a political war, however its documents, its means and ends show that it was perhaps also an economic war. Thus bringing together the two previously developed rules [sovereignty and power?] we are left with the question: Is the political outcome also economically tolerable and just?

"Soon after the peace agreements the economic adversity revealed its impact. The world economy pushed towards recovery and rose to the absurdity of artificial measures. International trade, finance and economic conferences followed one after the other. From the economically adverse ordering of reparation I foresee folly which must gradually chip away at the sanity of the encumbered. Eventually they decided in Geneva to call for an all-inclusiver world economic conference whose preparations committee is supposed to convene in the next few days. They will have to find the square in the circle on how they fixated in Paris in 1919 on coming up with a formula for creating first of all a nation's economic sovereignty within the supremacy of the world economy!

"The Vienna Congress put the finishing touches on the crime first introduced by the dynasties of the Romanovs, the Habsburgs, and the Hollenzollerns in the last decade of the last century. This crime was the division of Poland. The Parisan Areopagus [here referring to the Parisin High court?] of 1919 brought Poland back into it.

"But it also committed a similar crime. French diplomacy took up the tradition of Louis XIV with all nations surrounding Germany. It created a military and political plot against our people and assured the loyalty of the surrounding countries through the solidarity of thieves. Germany was not partitioned but parts of the German nation were divided. Neighboring countries were each given a section of Germany in which to instill conflict and establish lasting relationships with France. Italy dealt with German southern Tyrolia; Czechoslovakia influenced 3 ½ million Germans; Poland took the Corridor and lands long occupied by Germans; Belgium took Eupen and Malmedy. To contend with German Alsatia four new Alsatia divisions were established! This is the same political technique as employed in other centuries by the Turks who incited rebellion in Hungary and Transsylvania against the German Empire. It was a political technique used in the past and legitimized by its success. It was a kind of politics which one must have anticipated from the old dynasties and could not be objected to except in a time of political dispensation or during a peace settlement. There must be a clearly defined agenda for the materialization of a concept of nationality which will lead to a conclusion for all — not just the German nation.

"The Paris Peace Dictate didn't just create conflict along the borders but rather actually divided the nation. The partitioning and delegating of Germany is no small infamy just as was the partitioning of Poland and it also cannot persist.

"These economic convergences will be supplemented by the demilitarization of Europe. I comes as an impoverished family who sells its jewelry in order to set a new economic enterprise in motion. The European disarmament comes about in the outer offices of the American bankers. Anyone with good sense would rather spend their money paying interest rather than paying off debt accumulated on the battlefield. House Morgan has given its stipulation to Europe: "If you want my money you shall not wage war!"

"In this way many borders lose their military value. French justice naturally says about the European hegemony with regard to the thousand-year rivalry and military strife: For my country of thirty million people Germany with its seventy million people is too big. I must make it smaller, so I'll dissect it. However today both rivals see that they have both lost predominance; indeed both their futures are in question. A rival can never be weak; an ally can never be strong enough!

"The time is not far off when the border of Passau becomes economically and militarily irrelevent for Europe. The time is no longer far off when world politics takes into account such grand unity that this border is politically trivial and which can be relegated to a subcommittee of a European conference for disposal! We have seen that in the annexation question we have the entire European problem in a nutshell. Although all of Europe will take part in this problem, in the end for the world it has only the weight of a nut!

"It's crystal clear that we have planted our contention fully on the future economic and legal development of the world. We have done it to rip open the gates of the future, to involve the League of Nations, to instigate the European new order, in order to bury the past and no longer give life to the political measures of the past. What matters is that we never lose sight of the goal of annexation, of our right to never quit. As long as annexation matters to us, to the commonality of ideas and culture we will turn this into reality! Sooner or later the Locarno Agreements for the Danube must follow those agreements for the Rhine. The establishment of the European economic and legal community will make perfect sense on the day when the ripe fruit of annexation comes to pass. Not our conscious wish alone, the communal development is an imperative for Europe which guarantees this right to us!"


George A. Robinson, a former pastor of a Methodist church, who in his zeal to help with Prohibition, resigned his post and became an agent, has given up this job because, as he puts it, he was not in agreement with the crude and unsavory methods used by the agents.

February 25, 1927 page 3

Tagore on Europe


The Great Indian Poet paints a bleak picture.

The great Indian poet and philosopher, Rabindranath Tagore, is back home again. At his arrival in Calcutta on December 20, 1926 he received an extraordinarily cordial reception at the Howrah Train Station.

At his home in Joransanko he told a representative of the Calcutta newspaper Forward the following about his insights and experiences in Europe:

"There have been five years between my first lecture tour (1921) and this past one in Europe. In the interval many things have changed. My last journey was indeed neither special or extensive. This time I could only see the inner workings of Europe from a bird's perspective. However during my lecture tour one thing stood out in my mind and that is, that Europe is taking giant steps towards its doom and a blazing inferno stands before it.

"What I saw in 1921 awoke in me the belief that Europe was tired of war. It writhed in fierce pain still caused by battle wounds. Overall there was poverty and starvation. At that time students flocked in droves to me. They had lost faith in their teachers. They thought they had been led astray, they believed they had been doomed to an inescapable fate. They yearned for a new message — a message which would save them. The old ideals of Europe had gone into the abyss. People were searching for new ideals. And everyone was of the opinion that India could point them in the right direction towards peace. They stormed me with questions and asked me to proclaim the message of India.

"Today things are different. Europe has recovered very nicely. In today's Europe there is strong reaction against democracy as the order of the day. The dictator will speak the words. The people are forced by violence to comform to certain regulations. That this should be tolerated in Europe is a crying contradiction to everything in its traditions and ideals. In one oppressed country the use of force is an everyday occurence but in the free countries of Europe it awakens great disconcernment. This "organizational tyranny" has reach such a high level that my visitors often placed a finger to their lips to show that they could not discuss it.

"The reaction against democracy," the poet continued, "has reached its greatest extent in Italy. I experienced the truth about conditions in Italy before I was even inside the country. And I did not fail to notice Mussolini's despotism which hovered over the hospitality of the day. It was unambiguous and blisteringly acute. And the demands on hospitality had their limits. Under no circumstances could one be permitted to condemn such an outrage on humanity.

"Without a doubt Mussolini is," Tagore inserted here, "a strong and powerful person; and it cannot be disputed that he has put the country in order. But it comes at the cost of all other values. The fascist system is based on the wind-blown sand of universal terrorism and deeply rooted discontent. With Mussolini's death it will all fall apart. And even if it should remain successful for years it would constantly threaten Europe's peace and one day the proud construct of European civilization would fall to the ground!"

To the question of how Mahatma Ghandi's influence stands in Europe the poet responded:

"For a while after the war Europe was exhausted. Serenity was the watchword of all humanity. War-weariness led them to pacifism. They longed for peace, thus the message of Mahatma Ghandi penetrated the deepest recesses of their hearts. However that was only for a short time. The spirit of pacifism vanished. Militarism again began to spread. In Europe people had the greatest reverence and respect for Ghandi, but people are not passionate adherents to his movement any more. They no longer believe in the feasibility of his teachings. Europe finds itself in the wake of an imminent conflagration. The smaller nations especially suffer because they will be mercilessly pummeled. I name here Hungary, for example.

"The politicians of Europe seem not to have learned anything from the last war. They are conjuring up the best way to enter a new, large war — the word 'explosion' is an appropriate term here. England has been strongly shaken by class conflict. France is not yet on friendly footing with Germany. It was a very sad spectacle in Darmstadt how without cause the Algerian soldiers harassed Germans passing down the street. And the German Empire itself is being severely stunted in its development because of political party strife. Party conflict is disrupting family harmony and often fathers and sons are divided.

"With regard to Europe's cultural life," Rabindranath Tagore remarked, "everything is different. The war and the post-war years wrought great damage, but Europe's intellect has not been stifled and in large part it has repaired the damage. It reveals its unique greatness once again in full measure and in Germany this is particularly the case."


The Metropolitan "Freight Train"


At the newly built large power station in Rummelsburg the first so-called metropolitan freight train has arrived. This new conveyance signals a huge advancement to the usual coal delivery system and after it proves itself in its first run it will bring great change to the field of railroading. Previous delivery of coal and ores came through open, low-slung train cars which only transported a few tons of coal — ten tons in average. — A 1000 ton freight load would require a large number of cars and make for a train of significant length. At the end of the line unloading would be difficult since the cars would be too small for the mechanical gripper and unloading by hand would require a long period of time.

Construction of the new freightcar required consideration of two key points: large capacity and quick unloading. With their considerable height and massive construction the new cars look like an armored car. They can carry 50 tons of coal so a thousand ton train would only require 20 cars. The train's length would shrink to around 600 feet. At its premier at the power station in Rummelsburg the new cars unloaded at a truly amazing speed. Half the train, 10 cars, were emptied in 2 minutes. The side walls of the cars can be opened with simple lever handles so the coal can fall directly into the pit.

Cars of similar construction were until now only used in the Ruhr region. The Empire's capital city is certainly guaranteed a secure and fast coal delvery from the Silesian mines for its electrical power generators.


The Closing of the 18th German Federal Shooting Tournament


This year Munich had the honor of holding the 18th shooting tournament of the German Federal Shooting League within its walls. A mighty crowd of sharpshooters from the whole empire plus marksmen from America and Switzerland came to Munich. In order to facilitate the smooth transaction of shooting events large buildings were constructed at Theresia Meadow, the famous venue for the Oktoberfest celebrations. The shooting ranges stretched out for 300 meters in length. There were 189 ranges: 64 field ranges, 85 stationary ranges, 4 hunting ranges, 24 small caliber ranges and 12 pistol ranges. There were also as many beer boothes as one usually sees during Oktoberfest. These booths will stay in place until Oktoberfest.



— The Expert. "Tell me, Kurt," the teacher questioned, "when eleven sheep stand before a fence and six jump over it, how many are left behind?"
"None," Kurt the farmer's boy answered.
"But of course there are!"
"No ma'am!" Kurt responded. "You may know everything about counting but you don't know sheep!"

March 11, 1927 page 1

Smoking protects again Flu


Paris. Smokers are less likely to get the flu than nonsmokers, well-known medical writer Dr. Henri Bouquet declared. Experiments have shown that smokers are just about immune to spinal inflammation. — Just one more reason to smoke!

March 25, 1927 page 4

Political Parties against the Return of the former Kaiser


Berlin. — Opposition to the possible return of former Kaiser Wilhelm was expressed at the Reichstag [German Parliament] by the Center Party, the Democrats, and the Social Democrats. The event took place during a debate on the extention of the law to protect the Republic, which banned the former Kaiser's return but expired July 1st.

"The Kaiser should stay out: there's no place for him in Germany," the Social Democrats stated in a brief declaration.

The Center Party, to which Chancellor Marr belongs, stated that the possibilty of Wilhelm's return would not hamper the government but it would probably have significance in foreign politics. The party hoped that the advisors to the former ruler would have sufficient tact to spare the German people the strong disruption which would surely follow such a move.

The Democrats took another position in stating: "It's not because of foreign politics but rather the internal peace of the country that the State cannot justify allowing the return of the former ruler. Without a doubt he would become the object of revolutionist demonstrations."

April 1, 1927 page 1

Luckner's Lecture


On Sunday Evening at Arion Hall


Through the efforts of the Arion Singing Society it's possible for the German community of Syracuse to hear one of Count Luckner's famous lectures and to meet the Count himself.

Count Luckner was one of the outstanding personalities of the World War. He did more to uphold and contribute to the reputation of German chivalry than any other man. Even his most fierce adversaies had to respect him and they gladly admitted that his courage, his courtesy, and his gallantry never had a better model throughout world history.

Since last October Count Luckner has been in the United States on his journey around the world furthering the interests of Germany. His mission is peaceful. He no way intends to keep wartime ideals alive. He does not sow hatred, revenge or retaliation. His goal is understanding, forgiveness, and trust.

Count Luckner is an excellent orator who keeps his audience in constant suspense. HIs lectures have been successful all over the world. In many cities he's had to hold two or more lectures after he has awakened the appetite of the public.

Caption under Portrait reads: Count Felix Luckner

Not only German-Americans should be acquainted with this outstanding man. Stock-Americans and descendants of other nations should have a high level of interest in him and thus contribute to changing false impressions concerning German loyalty and honor.

The lecture takes place on Sunday evening at 7:30 in the Arion Hall and if all indicators are correct the hall will prove to be far too small to accommodate all visitors, but that shouldn't keep you from coming to see and hear this great seaman.

The flag of the ship "Pass of Balmaha," which after its capture by a German U-Boat during the World War became the famous "Seeadler" (Sea Eagle) of Count Luckner, will be returned by its captor to its original owner on Friday at an official ceremony. Original ship owner, W. Leslie Harris, the Count and their entourages will take luncheon at the "India House" on Hanover Square in New York. Here the flag will be returned, which Luckner had kept as a good luck charm on all of his cruises.

Mr. Harris, who had invited a number of leading New York ship owners, talked in an interview about his amazement for the deeds of the Count. The Count himself spoke at great length about his adventurous voyages and enphasized the flag was with him through all the difficult times and he was able to return it without a drop of blood being spilled on it.

Immediately afterwards the Count and his entourage went to Albany to continue his lecture tour so he can attend the Arion Hall on Sunday evening.

Any surplus funding acquired during the trip around the world will be given to benefit the Czechs in Germany, widows and orphans of seamen in particular.

April 1, 1927 page 8

Young German Woman becomes Lawyer


Buffalo, N.Y. — Well-deserved joy prevails in the house of the well-known German-American couple, Mr. and Mrs. Gustav Poppenberg. Their 21-year-old daughter, Miss Hildegard J. Poppenberg, successfully completed the lawyer's exam before the professions division of the Supreme Court in Rochester and she will be able to practice after she takes the oath.

Miss Poppenberg graduated from the elementary and high school then attended the University at Buffalo where she studied jurisprudence. After graduating with honors she worked in a law office and prepared for the state exam. Miss Poppenberg will open her own office.

April 15, 1927 page 3

The Number of Germans in Soviet Russia


There are 905,153 Germans in total residing in 2042 communities.

The German National Press of the Volga German Republic (Pokrovsky) has published in 1926 for the first time since it came into existence the number of German settlers in the Soviet Union. According to its statement it encompasses about 90 percent of all German regions. Along with the German population figures it also gives information on the communal organizations and cultural institutions.

When we compile the tallies together we find the following numbers in each district:

Volga Republic: 400,430 in around 282 communities
Siberia: 57,545 in around 337 communities
Crimea: 38,252 in around 293 communities
Kazakstan: 44,283 in around 128 communities
Baschkiria: 6,306 in around 56 communities
Kirgistan: 3,360 in around 3 communities
Ukraine: 227,067 in around 600 communities
Transcaucasia: 14,027 in around 22 communities
Individual districts and governments: 113,883 in around 318 communities

Total: 905,153 in around 2,042 communities

Since this compilation represents the first census of Germans in Russia it deserves further scrutiny. When we consider that only around 90 percent of the regions has been examined we can propably round this figure off to approximately 1 million Germans in Russia.

With regard to the Volga Republic there is a total population of 569,956 of which 400,430 are German. That's 71.4 percent. The total population figure from the last Soviet-Russian census of the Volga Republic was 533,000 and it was adjusted by 36,000. The previously established 71.4 percent contrasts with the Russian statistic of 67 percent. The entire region of the Volga Republic consists of 14 cantons. We find a German population in 13 of them. There are 65,000 in Canton Marxstadt; 51,807 in Canton Kamenka (the city of Kamenka has 3052 residents;) Canton Balzer has 49,820 of which 9820 live in the city of Pokrovsky, the capital of the Republic. The Canton of Staraja Poltawka has the smallest number with 6,087 Germans in 4 communities as opposed to 12,780 Russians in 15 communities. The purely Russian Canton of Solotoje has 26,219 residents in 24 communities.

The following are numbers for the Republic of Crimea: The largest number of Germans reside in Rayon Simferopol with 11,882 souls in 74 communities. In Rayon Djankoi there are 10,764 Germans in 89 communities; in Kertsch 1,333 in 10 communities.

In the Ukraine there are 227,067 Germans. Here we have a few gaps since no information was obtained for variously dispersed settlements. The main region around Odessa has 48,814 in 94 communities. In the Nikoljew district there are 29,163 in 26 communities; the Wolynsk district (Shitomir) has 28,998 in 103 communities; Saporoschie district has 27,154; Melitopol 24,409; Jekaterinoslaw 4,568; Cherson 4,687.

For the Caucasus we have the following: 84,564 Germans in 107 communities. They are divided up in the Russian "North Caucasian District" with 70,537 souls in 85 communities; in Georgia 9,263 in 14 communities; in Azerbaijan 4,764 in 8 communities.

In the Republic of Kirgistan there are 9 communities with 3,360 residents; in Baschkiria 56 communities with 6,306 Germans of whom 2,059 are in the Canton of Ufa and 3,360 are in Canton Belebej.

In the remaining Russian districts and government regions there are 43,346 residents. In the government district of Leningrad (the city of Leningrad not included) there are 9,523; Wotonesch 646; Saratow 16,411; Samara 9,778; Uralgau (Rayon Tscheljabinsk) 1,308; and Orenburg 5,680. That leaves the Siberian regions, where there are 44,283 Germans in 128 communities in the Rosaken Republic (Kazakstan). In the government district of Akmolinsk and the Kustani district there are 26,093 in 64 communities. In the governmental district of Semipalatinsk 18,190 residents in 64 communities. In various sections of Siberia there are 57,545 Germans in 337 communities. This involves the districts of Slawgorod, Omsk, Rubzowsk, Barabinsk, and Tatarsk. The majority are in Slawgorod and Omsk.


Bozan. — A locomotive and four cars of a passenger train overturned on a stretch of Bozen-Meran line near the Lana train station as a result of a dam break, which flooded the Etsch Valley. The engineer and the stoker were killed and a number of passengers received either light or severe injuries.

April 29, 1927 page 8

Now is the time to prepare your seed list for the garden.

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Saul's Garden and Flower Seeds

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Saul's Farm Seed and Accessories

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256 James St.
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May 6, 1927 page 3

Gerard in Utica


The Honorble James W. Gerard, former American ambassador in Berlin, and now an outspoken admirer and friend of the former German Kaiser, spoke last Monday evening in Utica at a celebratorial dinner at the University Club.

He discussed economic and political world issues and said among other things: "Europe is rearming again. The standing armies are larger today than they were before the war."

"Germany waits for an opportunity to march into Poland. However France is sympathetic towards Poland. It wants an ally to Germany's east. Thus one can see that Europe is rife with intrigue."

"It's a strange fact that after this war people had assumed they had fought for democracy, however democracy does not exist in Europe. Throughout the continent dictators rule the countries."

Mr. Gerard mentioned among other things the fact that in Upper Silesian a situation has developed which is as dangerous as the one in Alsace Lorraine.

Concerning the economic situation he stated: "Germany today is in excellent economic shape. In a very short period of time we will feel Germany's severe competitiveness."

                                                                                    Utica Deutsche Zeitung

May 6, 1927 page 4

Syracuse Union

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Telephone 2-1036
Founded 1852 by George Saul


Registered second class mail at the Post Office of Syracuse, N.Y.

The Oberlander Press, Publishers

Walter E. Mossdorf, Editor

Notices and Advertsements for the Syracuse Union must be submitted by Wednesday noon.

If you do not received your newspaper promptly please contact the office immediately.
All complaints will receive careful attention if you telephone 2-1036.

Subscription rates for the Syracuse Union are as follows:
One Year - $2.50
Six Months - $1.25
Three Months - .65
Single Issue - .05
Foreign, one year - $3.00


Mother's Day


Over the past few years a special day has been set aside for a special purpose. It's not the well-known grand national celebration but a day for all the everyday things in life which due to their simplicity and naturalness, if not completely forgotten, are often just left unobserved.

So on Sunday, May 8th Mother's Day will be celebrated. A normal human being never forgets his mother. Even if he's so unfortunate as never to have known her, in his heart he has a picture of her indelibly engraved within his heart. Thus at first the custom appears strange. However despite this it is fine and good. It leads us, if properly observed, to reflect back on our childhood; to think back to when we needed our mothers, who sacrificed for us; to when we did not possess the necessary reasoning to care for ourselves and to properly apprecate what she did for us. This reasoning often only comes in our mature years and often when it is too late to thank her and repay her, if only to a small extent.

For a long time a song was sung or a poem recited that began, "If you still have a mother, thank God and be happy." Due to caricatures and parodies these words have lost much of their meaning. And yet they express a world of good advice and tender sentiment. It's relevant to those who use the day to acknowledge a child's love for his or her mother. A visit on that day, or a letter, or any small acknowledgement should not be neglected on this day.

However some of us must give thanks in our thoughts or perhaps with a bouquet of flowers at the gravesite.

May 13, 1927 page 3



The Political Situation in Europe is similar to that before the World War


By Count Condenhove-Kalergi [sic]

The cause of the threat of war the last time was neither the Treaty of Tiranan nor the rumors of Yugoslavia's war preparations but rather the fact that the European post-war politics was confusingly similar to the pre-war politics. Thus the European governments learned nothing from the last catastrophe while hatred and mistrust grew within the populations.

Today Euope is divided into two camps similar to 1914. Again hostilities centered on the Albanian Protectorate threaten to erupt into war in southern Europe, the same as half a lifetime ago. Austria-Hungary has disintegrated but the legacy has become the problematic inheritance of the heirs.

Like then we hear the newspapers' contentions: accusations, provocations, denials. We hear of diplomatic mediations, international commissions, peaceful agendas and planned conferences; all about the things which between the Balkan War and the World War amid a thousand peaceful phrases led to world war.

And what did the people do? A storm of outrage ran throughout Europe about the planned crime, about the scorching of our piece of the earth, about the delinquent watchmen of the peace. Weren't there demonstrations on the recklessness in all the cities and villages of Europe? Wasn't the life and death of millions turned into a plaything? Weren't the megaphones expressing the people's will and the will of parliaments raised blaring above those of political battles; raised voices citing the threatening insanity and it's motivations?

Nothing came of it! In all countries, not directly involved, life went along in its usual way. Many peace articles were written, many peace discussions were held. However these peoples' hope was directed more towards their neutrality than towards peace. Their neutrality was only an incentive for those who wanted to break the peace.

And what's the League of Nations doing? What's this stronghold for peace doing in these days when warfare threatens? Article X of the League of Nations Covenant expressly stated: "League members are obliged to respect the territorial integrity and the political independence of all League members and to protect each other from external assault. In case of an attack, the threat of an attack, or the danger of attack, the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled." Article XI states "It is firmly established that any war or threat of war, whether or not it directly affects a League member, gives the entire League cause to take certain measures to protect the people's peace. In such a case the Secretary General shall call immmediately for advice and recommendations from every League member."

During the last crisis there was an obvious threat to the independence of a League member and the danger of attack. The League of Nations was obliged to intervene and call for advice. This did not occur and it dealt a heavy blow to hopes for peace. Today Europe is poorer because of the delusion. If there's another outbreak of crisis Europe has no justifiable expectation of action to the people's concerns in Parliament or to decisive intervention from the League of Nations. It can no longer be blind to the fact that the danger of war in Europe is greater than the assurances for European peace.

...This time the danger of war has touched Europe. Next time it will hit it. These days we are experiencing a dress rehearsal for the outbreak of war. We can respond to this with blindness or acknowledgement. We no longer have a right to rely upon the current institutions and expect that they are capable of assuring peace given all the contingencies. Thus we have a duty to look for new institutions and systems which can fill the void.

The time has come to compel each individual to decide whether he will advance the threat of war by his inactivity, or if he is determined to confront this dreadful monster in time; whether he will accept the political situation as fated or created by human design; whether he capitulates to the evil stupidity of his contemporary world or whether he will fight against it without regard for its superior force, without regard for the danger, without regard for the sacrifice. Whether he will yield to inertia or follow his conscience.

Anyone who takes up the fight is a Pan-European. Pan-Europe today is more than the program of one party or political state: it is a moral crusade for the rescue of peace.


The "Czeching" of German Bohemia


The way in which the Czech government has doggedly and systematically attempted to disband and dissolve the German-speaking regions by the establishment of Czech schools and the extent of the success it had has been demonstrated in a report concerning the 38th grand meeting of the Deutscher Böhmerwaldbund [German Bohemia Forest League], whose funds are dedicated to the support of German schools and information services to the public. The report mentions that the influx of German tourists into the Bohemian forests was more substantial this year than in former years but that the influx of Czech tourists into purely German regions was significantly greater than that of German tourists. With regard to Czech efforts in the field of school systems the following explanation gives insight:

In the judicial district of Budweis, which of all southern Bohemia districts had the heaviest German-national loss after state-caused upheaval, of the 104 German school classes which existed before the upheaval, 81 classes had been closed. In the Wittinauger district the Czech population practically held the entire region. In the one state-run Czech school in Erdweis with 32 children only 10 children were German. The German national population outlook is bleak in Böhmzeil and Lower Wieland because after the closing of the German schools in both regions and after the transfer of German school-age children to Erdweis there wasn't a single German child in the school system. In the judicial district of Krummau, city of Krummau there are 213 children in the Czech elementary school and 239 children in the Czech secondary school. In the entire district of Krummau almost all railroad officials were replaced by Czechs. The Czech academic high school in Prachatitz has about 300 male and female students. The transfer of German civil servants of Prachatitz is progressing. In Albrechtsried in the judicial district of Schüttenhofen the building of the former German public school was transformed into a Czech government-run public school. For each German child who is transferred to a Czech school 200 Czech Kronas are promised. Due to the lack of German schools in Albrechtried 47 German children receive home instruction from teachers provided by the German Culture Association. The German technical school in Bergreichenstein was closed supposedly due to low attendance. The ethnic minority school in Unterreichenstein, in existence for its second year, had 26 students in the last school year. Unfortunately only 17 (65 percent) are of full German parentage. In Hohenfurt there is a two-classroom Czech school with 42 children of which 23 (over half) are pure German. Although the Czech school building of Hohenfurt has enough room, at the beginning of the new school year a new Czech run public school will be built in nearby Kienberg for children of pure German heritage. In the Hartmanitz district the sad fact has been reported that the Czech public school is attended exclusively by German children. In Hartmanitz itself there are 29 children in the one class state-run public school and over half are of German or mixed heritage. The same applies to Glaserwald. On December 1, 1925 a new Czech state school was built for 7 full-blooded German children. The one classroom Czech state-run public school in Hurkental was attended exclusively by 24 German children at the beginning of the last school year. Hopes for apportionment of primarily German land was perhaps the reason why German parents transferred their children to Czech state-run schools. Similar situations exist in numerous other districts of the Bohemian Forest Region.

What in future years will become of the closed-off German language region? The data speaks for itself.


Kassel, Hessen. Recently soap manufacturer Reul was unexpectedly called away from his busy life at the age of 77 years.

June 3, 1927 page 3

Article 431 and the Evacuation Question


by Dr. Thum (Breslauer Neueste Nachrichten)

Right at the end of the Versailles Treaty there was a provision the duration of which made the originators uneasy. It's one of the smallest passages which contains a legal claim on Germany by the victorious countries by which even the designers of the demand scarcely believed it would play a serious role in the political discussion as is currently the case. This Article 431 states: "If before the end of the fifteen years Germany should satisfy all the accumulated obligations specified in the current treaty, occupation forces will be immediately withdrawn." The preceding articles contain the individual provisions for the gradual withdrawal of occupied regions in three stages, of which the first zone was freed a year ago after a one year delay by the foreign troops. According to the wording of the treaty the course of further evacuations would proceed with the second in January 1930 and the third zone, the occupied Rhineland, occurring in January 1935. However this was assuming no setbacks occurred, in which case Article 430 provides for the immediate reoccupation of already vacated regions should Germany refuse to fulfill its obligations, in which case Article 431 would be nullified! Of course there is no discussion in Article 430 of what constitutes refusal on Germany's part. The primary goal of German politics has been to free itself of the fetters of the Versailles Treaty and besides, the Dawes Plan created a scheme which addressed the questions about Germany's fulfillment of reparations by emphasizing sporadic willingness to fulfill obligations above a temporary refusal to comply. However to date there have been more occasions to draw the allies' attention to Article 431 with its obligation to immediately withdraw occupation troops upon fulfillment of German obligations.

Germany's failure to immediately comply with the obligations laid out in the Versailles Treaty fall into two major categories: disarmament and payment of reparations. Naturally the concept of satisfactory performance applies here as laid out in Article 431. The term "satisfactory performance" corresponds exactly to the French text of the Treaty, the word "satisfait." In this case, as it applies in all other cases to the opponent, great value is placed upon the exact wording of this article by the Germans. The result here is not a complete settlement of the claims placed against us since satisfactory performance allows for a time period during which each portion of the obligation is fulfilled. The choice of words in this expression indicates a method for determining Germany's fulfillment not purely through accounting terms but rather political considerations. When one thinks about the implementation of Germany's obligations in both areas, disarmament and reparations, all sides unconditionally recognize that German disarmament has been completed. What currently still needs to be undertaken is deconstruction of the battlements on the German eastern border. It is a remaining task recognizably outside the paraments of disarmament, which ended the previous December according to statement made by observers from Geneva, who found irreversible external signs of withdrawal of military control in Germany. If one examines the qualifications for Article 431 going into effect, one may call the huge chapter on disarmament as good as completed. Not only was performance satisfactory here but remaining contingencies were fulfilled as the Treaty had demanded of us. Now only the contentious question remains, to what extent similar assessment of the chapter on reparations can take place.

It's obvious that another criterium must be considered here along with disarmment. It follows that despite the Dawes Plan the total measure of our reparation performance has not been determined in terms of amount or timeframe. The Dawes Plan has merely given the annual installment rate but not the number of payments or the number of years repaying the debt. It yields the conclusion that "satisfactory performance" in accordance with Article 431 and in relation to reparation payments must be acknowledged even if during the time of payment circumstances arise which warrant similar acknowledgement. The Versailles Treaty says nothing about this. Given this legal loophole the perception exists in more recent times that one may consider Article 431 fulfilled since it appears an assurance has been given that Germany will intermittently pause in making the payments imposed upon it. Yet it's understandable that this interpretation is not deemed universally valid and it has been hotly contested by portions of the Parisian press. It's also noteworthy that certain prominent politicians in France have acknowledged this in open forum. Within this premise the question arises as to whether one should now recognize such an assurance is in place or if one asserts further prerequisites in hindsight. One such prerequisite was cited in Paris, for example. Germany must at least once make the normal annual payment established by the Dawes Plan since our performance up to this point has only been at a lesser annuity. One sees that this reasoning is completely arbitrary and raises many objections. Firstly it is in no way firmly established that the so-called normal annual payment of the Dawes Plan will remain the same for the duration. It's become clear even to those abroad that the amount will reach a level that can never be repaid. In this Paris logic lies the glaring admission that reparation payments cannot in reality lead to one final payment if one wishes to comply with Article 431 as written. It is an admission that the willingness to repay and Germany's ability to repay carry more weight together than the sum of the payments made. Such is the assessment to this point in time when Article 431 should come into play, linked politically to completion of payment, and this step undoubtedly involves the question of when the Rhineland will eventually be evacuated.


The Voice of His Dog


The ventriloquist Nabelli sits with his dog in the tavern, "The Golden Lion." The people of Rumpelsburg sit around him. They are astonished by this new arrival.

Suddenly Nabellis' schnauzer opens his mouth and states loudly and clearly: "Give me another piece of sausage."

A talking dog! The townfolk are speechless. It's something never seen before and completely unheard-of. Everyone must have one!

Mr. Schultze timidly asks the question, "How much did that animal cost? Could someone buy that dog?"

"No, he's not for sale."

"How about for a 100 Marks?"

"No, not even for 150 Marks!"

Schultze slapped his chest. What would his old father say if he came home with a talking dog.

"The animal is really one of a kind. Take 200 Marks and we'll have a deal.

"Okay, just because it's you it'll do. Give me the 200 Marks!"

Schultze forked it over and was about to leave with his wonder dog. But he didn't get 10 steps when the mutt grumbled: "He sold me. Just for that I'll never say another word!"


Music. The lady next door: "Is your son at all musical?"

Mother: "Oh yes! Only two years old and he already plays on the carpet."

June 3, 1927 page 4

70 Years Old


The Westlich Post, the only German daily newspaper which still exists in St. Louis, celebrated its 70th birthday last Sunday and used the occasion to publish a special edition of the Mississippi Blätter (Mississippi News) to honor the publishers and printers.

To individual human beings, seventy years is a long time. Most of us have shorter life lines and go to our graves long before that age. Even a newspaper has a limited lifespan, especially when it is not written in the language of the land. Many are the trials and hostile influences with which it has to contend. Its life is constantly threatened. The number which make it to 70 years is very small. Most wither early. Due to the fighting and the suffering few reach a biblical age. Those can be counted on our fingers. The Westliche Post is among those few pioneers of German periodical literature.

Born in the turbulent days prior to the Civil War and headed by men driven across the ocean by the search for freedom after the '48 Revolution, from its earliest days the Westlich Post was dragged into the fight against hostile outlooks on life. At every turn it stood for complete intellectual and civil freedom and it has nothing to be ashamed of throughout its 70 year history. Whether it still has an extended lifespan to look forward to we do not know, but today it stands as fresh and vital as it was a year ago. And it still stands by the principles which have distinguished its life so far.

The Westliche Post has to the full extent of its power maintained the interest of the German population because it has represented their interests. All enemies of German traditions and love for freedom, the nativists and manipulators of all sorts will find opposition for as long as the Westliche Post represents the interests of St. Louis' German community.

The Syracuse Union, which has already celebrated its 75th birthday, extends its warmest congratulations to our colleague in St. Louis.


A Great Loss for a Church Newspaper


Mr. William Harrer of Utica, father of Mrs. Hermann G. Weiskotten, passed away suddenly last week in his home in Utica at the age of 85 years and was buried on Monday. He was well known in Syracuse and had a wide circle of friends. For many years he was an assistant editor of a monthly newspaper titled The Young Luther, which served the interests of the young people of the Lutheran church. It was his assignment to find new outlets for this newspaper in various portions of the country and he had many friends and acquaintances throughout the country.

For many years Rev. Dr. Jeremiah Zimmermann and Rev. E.B. Klingensmith worked closely with him. The latter delivered his funeral sermon on Monday.

Mr. Harrer was born in Lichtenau, Baden in 1842 and he was the last relative of the family to which the famous composer Nessler belonged. He was the last living member of the 14th Regiment, which distinguished itself during the Civil War. He lived for 7 years in Utica, where he enjoyed overall popularity and respect.

Many readers of The Young Luther will remember the article in which Mr. Harrer wrote about his experiences in the Civil War.

May he rest in peace.

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Translation by Susan Kriegbaum-Hanks