Miscellaneous Articles about Buffalo and the German Community during World War I

According to the 1910 U.S. Census Buffalo had a population of 423,715. 14,931 people were Austrian born or of Austrian parentage. 141,969 were German born or of German parentage. This represented 37% of the city's population. By 1917 the population of Buffalo was estimated at 450,000. No data is available for the foreign-born or those of foreign parentage.

Buffalo Commercial, Thursday, February 10, 1916



Buffalo German Insurance Company Has a Record of Splendid Growth

The Buffalo German Insurance Company, one of the long-established fire insurance companies of Buffalo, has issued its 49th annual statement which is shown in detail in an advertisement in today's Commercial. The company has shown splendid progress. In fact, its history is a record of splendid growth. The institution merits the confidence and patronage of Buffalonians.

The Buffalo Insurance Company, organized in 1867, now has a capital of $400,000 and a surplus of nearly $2,000,000. In exact figures $1,944,158. John G. Wickser is president of the company.

Buffalo Demokrat (Buffalo, New York), Thursday, May 11, 191, p. 4

Buffalo Democrat

_____ Office 254 Main St.

The "Democrat" is the only German newspaper in Buffalo with access to telegraphic communication and it has a larger circulation than any other German newspaper in the State of New York except New York City.

The "Buffalo Democrat" delivered daily by carrier costs:

One year.....$6.50
6 months.......3.25
3 months.......1.63
1 week.............50¢

For this price the out-of-town reader may receive this newspaper in any part of the United States.


The weekly edition of the "Buffalo Demokrat" appears each Thursday. It is a beloved family newspaper and contains the latest reports and other items of interest. Prepaid and delivered by post in the United States for $1.50 but after initial subscription $1.75 prepaid. To Europe and Canada and all other countries in the International Postal Union the weekly newspaper is available for $2.00 per year prepaid.


Out of Town Agent: Howard C. Story, Chicago, Peoples Gas Building; New York, 110* Fifth Ave; Philadelphia, 924 Arch St.

Telephone: Bell, Seneca 352; Frontier 32013


                     F.C.B. Held, owner

Entered at the Postoffice of Buffalo, N.Y. as second-class mail matter

All Roads Lead to the Bazaar for German Defense

The invitation previously delivered in this section of the newspaper to Buffalo's German Community and its friends to visit the bazaar to benefit the German Defense Fund has been answered in endless measure of benevolence and generosity as shown by the bazaar's third evening. Old and young piled into the auditorium. "Who can count the faces, or say all the names of those who came together as guests?" Class differences disappeared, everyone was united and bound together in the spirit of benevolence.

It's a sublime and beautiful feeling to see how all classes competed to make the bazaar in German defense one of the most successful undertakings of its kind. The soul rejoices at the thought of how many war wounds the bazaar healed and how much grief and distress the bazaar soothed. Need one explain how much the visitors gave joyfully and generously? Is it any wonder that the crowds got bigger with each hour of the bazaar?

Thousands upon thousands who had already attended the bazaar told their friends of the pleasantly-spent hours and of the useful items on sale there at reasonable prices and thus excited the interest of more thousands for this good cause.

For all those who have not yet had the time or the opportunity to visit the bazaar these paragraphs should serve as a stimulus to them to lend their support to this noble undertaking. Just as each co-worker is convinced of the importance of this act of love so will each visitor look back for a long time on this bazaar with an invigorating sense of genuine satisfaction for having contributed his time and money to ease the suffering of those hit hardest by the war and to dry the tears of the widows and orphans. Every one with German blood flowing through his veins should consider it his sacred duty to contribute his modest share.

"I'm going off to the bazaar" should be the slogan for today and rest of the evenings this week!

Former federal senator Lorimer of Illinois has been cleared of charges accusing him of deceiving the depositors in his failed bank. The acquittal returns to Mr. Lorimer his rights as a citizen but not the money lost to his clients.

[Ad for advertisers] Want to gain attention? This can be done easily, cheaply and quickly.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Thursday, February 22, 1917



Youths given Some Posers
on Topics of General


The annual February general information test which the students at the Nichols School must undergo was held on Wednesday. Following is a list of the questions submitted:

I.    Name, with title, the ruler or leading stateman of

  1. France
  2. Austria.
  3. Russia.
  4. Greece.
  5. Bulgaria.
  6. Switzerland.

II.   Locate

  1. Debrudja
  2. "No Man's Land
  3. Trentine
  4. Monastir
  5. Kiel
  6. Bucharest
  7. Piraeus
  8. Site of "Billy" Sunday Tabernacle (Buffalo)
  9. Buffalo Botanical Garden
  10. Federal Building (Buffalo)
  11. Site for Greater University of Buffalo

III. What recent event of importance is subbested by

  1. Danish West Indies?
  2. Adamson?
  3. The Deutschland?
  4. Thomas Lawson?
  5. Sarah Bernhardt?
  6. Justice Wheeler?
  7. Alexandretta?

IV.  In what field famous

  1. Ines Milholland Boissevain?
  2. Louis Botha?
  3. Richard Cabot?
  4. John S. Sargent?
  5. Barrett Wendell?
  6. John R. Mott?
  7. Louis Raemaekers?
  8. Sir Hiram Maxim?

V.   Identify

  1. Brusselloff.
  2. Liebknecht.
  3. Aristide Briand.
  4. Nivelle.
  5. Venizelos.
  6. Tagore.
  7. Verhaeren.
  8. Hugo Munsterberg.
  9. Joshua.
  10. Saul of Tarsus.

VI.  Who

  1. Is our Secretary of War?
  2. Is our Secretary of the Navy?
  3. Is the Governor of New York?
  4. Is the Governor of California?
  5. Recently said "The war must be fought to a finish," and quoted Lincoln?
  6. Is president of Cornell University?
  7. Is president of Williams College?
  8. Has succeeded Mr. Riordan in the Buffalo School Board?
  9. Is the captain of Troop I?
  10. Is the editor of the Buffalo Evening News?
  11. Is the editor of the London Times?
  12. Composed the opera "Faust?"
  13. Wrote the "Spoon River Anthology?"
  14. Is called the Father of the Erie Canal?
  15. Wrote "Old Black Joe?"
  16. Wrote the Uncle Remus stories?
  17. Led the American League in batting?
  18. Was our late Ambassador to Germany?
  19. First in England printed a book from movable type?

VII. What

  1. Is an artery?
  2. Is a compound fracture?
  3. Is "normal temperature?"
  4. Is an antidote?
  5. Was the date of publication of the King James version of the Bible?
  6. Are Anglo-Saxon 5's?
  7. Is the meaning of U in U-boat?
  8. Is a poilu?
  9. Is a stethoscope?
  10. Are industrial "War Brides?"
  11. Recent important decision on liquor traffic between states?
  12. Is the meaning of f. o. b.?
  13. Is the meaning of ibid?
  14. Is the meaning of status quo ante?
  15. Is the approximate population of Buffalo?
  16. Are the names of five banks in Buffalo?
  17. Was Wilson's approximate popular majority last November?
  18. Is the Phi Beta Kappa society?
  19. Is a "tank"?
  20. Is a cathedral?
  21. Is an embargo?
  22. Was the real name of "Buffalo Bill"?
  23. Important foreign contract has recently been awarded to the Siems-Carey Company?
  24. Well-known dye manufactory in this city?
  25. Are five important instruments used in an orchestra?
  26. Book which you have ever read can you describe by title, author, and publisher?
  27. Author of a famous book for children was an able mathematician?
  28. Famous American historian when a student lost the use of one eye and was nearly blinded for life by a piece of bread thrown by a fellow student?
  29. Is a blockade?

VIII. Identify by author or work

  1. "Where there is no vision the people perish."
  2. "Millions for defence; not one cent for tribute."
  3. "Should auld acquaintance be forgot?"
  4. "To set the cause above renown; to love the game beyond the prize."
  5. "Ring out the old, ring in the new."
  6. "Mind is the great lever of all things."
  7. "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends."
  8. Drink to me only with thine eyes.
  9. "Lives of great men all remind us, We can make our lives sublime."
  10. "That government of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from the earth."

Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Saturday, March 24, 1917, p.11


Directors of Chamber of Commerce and City Commissioners Confer---Believe Attempts May Be Made to Blow Up Plants and Water Works.


As a result of a conference of the board of directors of the Chamber of Commerce and Commissioners Charles M. Heald, Charles B. Hill, Arthur W. Kreinheder and John F. Malone in the Chamber of Commerce last night, Buffalo may be placed under strict military rules in view of the strong possibility that war may be declared by congress when it meets in special session on April 2nd, it was learned from an authentic source this morning.

Absolute secrecy attended the meeting last night. It was said after the conference that it was unanimously agreed that nothing should be made public.

Commissioner Charles B. Hill left for Albany at an early hour this morning. He will call upon Governor Whitman and discuss with him the question of whether the 74th regiment and possibly some other unit of the National Guard should not be mobilized and placed in service guarding the water works and plants in Buffalo which are vital to the life of the city and which are manufacturing munitions.

Every precautionary measure will be taken.

Among those who were in attendance at the conference last night were United States secret service operatives, who have been in Buffalo for many months, laid some valuable information before the conference and it is also known that the city commissioners and the directors of the Chamber of Commerce nearly all of whom were present, were informed that all is not as serene as the surface would indicate in this city.

In other words they were told that it is practically known that there are within the limits of the city hundreds and maybe thousands of reservists of the army of Germany.

Each phase of the grave situation that was pictured at the conference was discussed thoroughly and it was decided that immediate action was necessary.

It was also learned that an order was issued at the suggestion of the Chamber of Commerce directors and the city commissioners that nobody shall be allowed in or near the city’s pumping stations unless they have been furnished a permit by the head of the department of public works.

Both the pumping stations are being guarded by city policemen. They have been under guard since the United States severed diplomatic relations.

However it was agreed that guards of policemen are not sufficient protection against any plots or attacks that might be made upon them.

It is for this reason in particular that the city commissioners and the directors of the Chamber of Commerce believed that it would be the best plan to have the pumping stations placed under military guard.

None of the conferees would say just what information was laid before them last night. They said that they were under an agreement of secrecy.

It is not known who induced the calling of the conference, but it is known that the facts that were given to the city commissioners and the directors of the Chamber of Commerce were sufficiently startling to cause them to come to an immediate conclusion that this city must be guarded closely and that the citizen as well as the police and others should be on watch at all times to detect any plot of movement that may be on foot to cripple the water works and plants in the city.

It was pointed out that if an enemy of the country succeeded in blowing up the pumping stations that the city would be tied up as far as water was concerned within a few days and the national consequences would be that plants would be forced to close down and the residents would be without water.

The conference last night started shortly before 10 o’clock. It lasted until an early hour this morning. Chief Martin was not called until after midnight. He was asked about what he knew of conditions in Buffalo.

Chief Martin informed the conferees that as far as he knew there was nothing being done by German sympathizers. He said that he was keeping in close touch with the men of his department and that he had issued orders to them that they should report to him any suspicious circumstances that is brought to their attention.

The United States secret service operatives have been at work in Buffalo for months. This city has been and is regarded by the federal government as a hotbed for plots.

Mr. Hill was delegated by the directors of the Chamber of Commerce and the other city commissioners to call upon the governor. He was advised to make all possible haste and to lay before him the situation that exists in the city. It was thought by the conferees that the situation is sufficiently serious to warrant the recall of the troops into service and to have them placed on guard at vantage points within the city.

Although the 74th Regiment, Troop I and the Third Field Artillery are not in active service they are still in the federal service. They are still under the oath they took when they were called to the colors just before leaving for the border and are subject to the commands of the war department at Washington.

It was said this morning that the troops may be back to active service within a couple of days. It was first thought that they would not be recalled until after congress held its special session, but on account of conditions that have been brought to light they may be called any minute.

Just what information the United States secret service operatives have at their disposal is not known. It is believed that it is of a general character and that it involves nobody in particular, because if it did the federal government would lose no time in placing the suspects under arrest and bringing them to justice.

Although it is believed that the city will be placed under strict military orders it is known that everything that is done will be a precautionary nature and that the steps will be taken to prevent the possibility of enemies of the country accomplishing their purpose.

One of the main facts that was taken into consideration by the conferees was that Buffalo is an industrial center and that it is essential that all of the industries of the city should be guarded closely. There are several plants in and near the city that are manufacturing war munitions and their existence would be vital to the welfare of the country-at-large if war with Germany came. They would be used to supply the army and navy with as much ammunition as they could put out.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Friday, April 6, 1917



Hundreds of Them Make
   Declaration of Intention
      to Become Citizens



While the War Lasts Unnaturalized Germans Are Liable to Drastic Treatment—Women Among Applicants.

Notwithstanding the declaration of war with Germany and the fact that the United States laws prevent the naturalization of Germans while the war lasts, the rush for applicants of first papers continued at the office of County Clerk Meahl this morning and the majority of those applying were of German or Austrian birth. The number of applicants for first papers during the last few days set a record which is the theme of discussion throughout the county clerk's office. During March there were more than 400 applications for first papers, which is another way of saying that more than 400 persons made declaration of their intention to become citizens of this country. That was a record which the naturalization clerks believed would be hard to beat. It is being smashed to fragmentary bits these first days of April.

So far in April more than 150 persons have applied for first papers and scores for their final papers. County Clerk Meahl had to put on additional clerks at the naturalization desk in his office, and even these could not take care of the unprecedented rush during regular office hours and have had to work late in the evening every day since the rush started.

Women are among the applicants to an unusual extent these days and so far in April four women have been among the applicants for naturalization papers.

There is nothing in the naturalization law to prevent the taking of declarations from Germans anxious to become citizens of this country during the war, but the law prohibits the final naturalization of any citizen of a country with which the United States are at war. Moreoever, there is this provision in the law:

"Nor shall anything herein contained be taken or constued to interfere with or prevent the apprehension and removal, agreeably to law, of any alien enemy at any time previous to the actual naturalization of such alien."

This section has been interpreted by our courts to mean that the United States have full power to arrest, interne, deport or otherwise deal with any man, the citizen of a county with which we are at war, who had not been admitted to citizenship.


Transcriber's Note: Page 598 of the 1910 U.S. Census indicates the population of Buffalo was 423,715. 156,900, or 37% were of German or Austrian Descent, with 14,931 people of foreign birth or foreign parentage from Austria and 141,969 people of foreign birth or foreign parentage from Germany.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Saturday, April 7, 1917, editorial section.

The United States is at war with the imperial government of Germany at last. The final step was taken yesterday when the President, who was elected only a few months ago upon the slogan, "He kept us out of war," issued the proclamation that announced to the world the momentous fact and enjoined upon all Americans the duty of "upholding the laws of the land and giving undivided and willing support to those measures which may be adopted by the constitutional authorities in prosecuting the war to a successful issue and in obtaining a secure and just peace."

The Commercial does not believe that there is any considerable body of Americans in this country, no matter how their sympathies may have run previous to the entrance of the United States into the conflict, who will not give whole-hearted support to the Flag from now on. In particular we believe that our citizens of German birth or parentage will not forget their allegiance to the country of their adoption. Distressed they must be over the unfortunate outcome. But they will not forget their duty, no matter how much it grieves and pains them.

If there are any still not inclined to render that devotion to the Stars and Stripes which their sworn troth requires of them, let them take to heart these noble words from one of the finest citizens of German birth America has ever known, Rudolph Blankenburg, called by many Philadelphia's finest citizen. In an appeal to citizens like himself of German birth he says:
We sought a home in the New World and found it. We were invited and welcomed under the Declaration of Independence, under the Constitution and under laws that assured us equal rights with those who had come before us. Now let us show that we are worthy of this high privilege, that we are worthy of American citizenship, the priceless boon of mankind."

It is needless to give warning to those who are bound to talk and act against the interests of this country. Any citizen who from now on gives aid to Germany is a traitor and can be clapped into jail without the chance of being released by giving bail. Thoughtless speech may result in much embarassment and the best rule for those to follow who will not adopt the patriotic course advised by Mr. Blankenburg is to keep their mouths shut.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Wednesday, April 18, 1917, p. 15


Instructs Boys to Plow Up Vacant Ground Around the Home for Use of Gardeners—Will Offer Prizes

J.C. Dold, head of the Dold Packing company, is going to plant potatoes in the land surrounding his home, 32 Middlesex road. Mr. Dold at present is in California. Notice of his intention was received this morning by Henry B. Saunders, assistant secretary of the Chamber of Commerce. He wrote: “I have instructed our boys to plow up the vacant ground around our home on Middlesex road and also in Nottingham terrace, and plant potatoes. I shall invite my neighbors all around there to take over a few rows to work personally. I shall offer prizes of a Niagara ham and bacon, a half dozen Wheatfield broilers and a half-dozen boxes of Wheatfield eggs to the neighbors raising most potatoes in a row. I intend to donate the crop from the rows I shall be responsible for to some needy channel and I shall advise the neighbor-workers to do the same.”

Practical and Helpful.

There’s practical, helpful, neighborly home gardening. Anyone who knows Mr. Dold will readily believe that there’ll be some potatoes grown out in Middlesex road and Nottingham terrace, and also that his neighbors will follow his example and get busy, for the good of the country and for individual benefit. Mr. Dold is director of the Chamber of Commerce and has a 500 acre farm at Wheatfield.

At Jubilee library in Niagara street near Hamilton street members of the Housewives league will meet this afternoon at the call of Mrs. Edgar C. Neal, president, to consider backyard garden and food substitutes. Ethel Cohen, supervisor of domestic science in the public schools, will speak on nutritive values of foods and Sarah Pettit of the Farm bureau will tell about constructive foods.

The special committee of supervisors and the bankers in Erie county will meet this afternoon in the supervisors’ chamber to discuss plans for financial aid to the farmers in this county that they may increase the size of their crops this year. The purpose of the meeting is to estimate the total sum of money which will be required to properly finance the farm work and to plan to obtain Erie county’s portion of the $20,000,000 fund which J. Pierpont Morgan company has agreed to loan to the state and the farmers. The Woman Suffrage party has offered space in the store, 670 Main street, which has been obtained for the headquarters for the suffragists for the use of the Home Garden league as a central place for lectures on gardening and distribution of literature and information. Mrs. Melvin Porter, Herta A. Toeppen, who is a graduate of the Missouri Botanical garden; Mrs. Frank A. Abbott and Mrs. John R. Hazel will represent the women suffragists in home garden movement.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Friday, April 27, 1917, p.4


Expert of League Receives Many Calls to Assist in Testing and Selecting Land Suitable for Planting.

Buffalo home gardeners are getting preliminaries disposed of with enthusiastic desire to get their gardens started as quickly as weather conditions and elbow work will permit. The great interest to this home gardening is shown by the hundreds of requests received by the NEWS for the limestone donated by Mr. Ward of the Michigan Limestone & Chemical Co. Many telephone calls have come to the NEWS.

Before using the limestone, NEWS readers are advised again to read the article printed in Tuesday’s NEWS on the liming of gardens, which contains hints which will assist in preparing ground properly.

Irving H. Doetsch, the expert of the Home Garden league, has been going about Buffalo and vicinity testing many pieces of land and vacant spaces offered to the home gardeners. He is listing those spaces which are suitable for gardening and they will be apportioned by his bureau.

Mr. Doetsch said today that he has found much land which is worth while and many pieces on which a garden scarcely could be made with profitable success. His testing and selection of gardening spots will be of great service to all who wish to make gardens, as it will avoid the waste of money, labor and seeds.

All persons who have requested the use of lands offered through the NEWS are requested to communicate with Mr. Doetsch at the Home Garden league office, 412 Chamber of Commerce, Seneca 3430, who will arrange details. The large lawn in the rear of the S.M. Clement residence at 786 Delaware avenue is to be turned into a big garden. The plowing will be finished in two or three days and planting of potatoes will be rushed. This is following the example set by Jacob C. Dold of utilizing large spaces at residential properties for practical and helpful purposes.

Canoeists Will Hoe.

The 325 members of the Buffalo Canoe Club also have joined the home gardeners. They will have a big potato patch at their clubhouse at Point Abino. Commodore Sam Hall is planning with Allan N. MacNabb to have the younger members of the club, particularly become “men with the hoe.” So strongly has the community idea of gardening taken hold of Buffalonians that a man visited the home where expert Deotsch lives in the city late in the evening and urgently asked that he and some of his neighbors be assigned a certain piece of land to work.

The man was told to get his neighbors together and go ahead preparing the land and that he would have all the assistance the Home Garden league could give him.

Mrs. James A. Gardner, chairman of the lecture committee of the league, is planning for talks on home gardening in public schools, which are to be utilized as centers for community meetings of pupils, teachers and parents, to promote gardening. Mr. Doetsch will speak this afternoon before the Mother’s club at school 40.


Dold-Quality Fertilizer

Made from packing house materials, the best and most reliable fertilizer for new gardens and lawns. Cannot be surpassed as “crop producers.” Sold on 5-lb., 10-lb., 25-lb. and 100-lb. sacks by Harvey Seed Company, Clark Seed company, W.J. Beyer, A.C. Pollard & co., Buffalo Poultry Supply, co., C.S. Pinkel & Sons.

Now is the Time. Don’t Delay.

Jacob Dold Packing Co.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Monday, April 23, 1917



Aeroplanes Promise to Be as Thick as Flies Around Buffalo


It is expected that the Curtiss Aeroplane Company's school for aviators will be opened this week. The Yale students, among whom is William J. Conners of this city, will arrive here some time this week and activities at the foot of Porter avenue will then commence. Work has been started on the construction of a large hangar, bigger than the one which has been in use down there.

Clarence W. Webster of the Curtiss company has returned from New York and is preparing to open the army flying school on the Niagara Falls boulevard. Expert pilots, some of whom have seen service in the war, are being called together as instructors for the school.

"Buffalo will get tired looking at flying machines this year," said Mr. Webster. "Every available minute will be used in instructing the students in the school at the foot of Porter avenue and the other one on the boulevard.

Glenn H. Curtiss was informed yesterday by a night letter from Miami, Florida, that his new twelve cylinder aeronautical motor installed in the hydroplane Miss Miami had broken all world's records on Saturday at Miami. This water craft, being driven over a measured course, averaged 66 1-2 miles per houe or many miles faster than the world's record.



Never Fully Accepted Burden
of the Teuton Yoke
Put Upon it in 1870



Pastor Wagner Says Alsatians Were
   Disgusted By the Conduct of
      the Conqueror


Paris, France, April 25.—correspondence of The Assoaicated Press)—"If there is entertained anywhere a conviction that Alsace is German in spirit today, it is a superficial deduction lacking exactly what the Germans have never had, that is, the element of psychology," said Pastor Charles Wagner, author of "The Simple Life," speaking to The Associated Press about President Wilson's speech to the democratic National Committee and the semi-offical reply sent out from Berlin in which it was declared that Alsace is today, as it always has been, German in language, tradition and sentiment. Pastor Wagner began his career as a clergyman in Alsace after the war of 1870.

"The Germans claim Alsace as a German-speaking country, yet they themselves were surprised in 1870 to find a people there speaking a language similar to their own, yet so different in everything that goes to make up life," continued the Pastor.

"There were Alsatians that might have been called 'half and half,' that had benefited from French culture and German science. That element thought that, if France should lose Alsace, it might become more and more a connecting link between the two countries. Indeed, the historical origin of Alsace would justify the conviction that the country had a great mission to perform in the world but that mission was denied by the Germans. They would not admit that the Alsatians could draw on two sources. They required that the annexed people should forget France, that they should have only one pride and one glory, that of being German.

"I was a student in Strassburg after the war of 1870 and saw the beginning of the new and painful era for Alsace. I soon discovered that, if I remained, I could scarcely be anything more than a corporal of the Emperor. I left because I didn't want to become a 'spiritual gendarme.'

"The Germans failed utterly to understand what was noble and worthy in the Alsatian character and how they might have made themselves accepted. They were blind to the painful situation of the tenacious and obstinate Alsatian people, holding to old affections, and to whom, remaining faithful to France in her misfortunes, Germany appeared all the more excessive in her exultations. They had not the tact and discretion of a successful victor. The consequence was that Alsatians attirbuted the result of the war of 1870 more to circumstances than to Germany's superiority.

"The great contrast they were obliged to draw between the Germans who emigrated from other provinces into Alsace after the war and their ideal German, destroyed their confidnece in the much vaunted German organization.

"The Alsatian lives well and drinks good wine, but he is ashamed to be seen drunk. The absolute absence of ***nity in this respect by the immigrated Germans made it impossible for the Alsatian to associate with them.

The younger generations became more indifferent than the old by force of circumstances, but the partial conquest of this younger element was not a spiritual conquest. It was simply because the population was becoming habituated to new rulers, as an old woman becomes habituated to her false teeth, to her failing beauty, without in any sense becoming enamoured to her old age.

The Germans needed a Napoleon to complete the military conquest of 1870 by the spiritual conquest of the people. He would never lay a hand upon institutions particular to Alsace and Lorraine. He was chaffed once about the generals on his staff who spoke German. 'It is true they do speak German,' he said; 'Kellermann swears in German, but he fights in French.' Napoleon knew that the spirit of the Alsatian was French and that he needed to have no anxiety on the score of the language. In fact, the French policy since Louis XIV had been never to touch anything in Alsace, The country was left with a language that was not national. German and French were taught, but the old patois was the substance. French penetrated the province like a perfume instead of like a projectile as did German institutions.

"A curious result of the German effort to stamp out French in Alsace was that in proportion as the Alsatians forgot French they became more Alsatian, while they never approached any nearer to being German. In less than fifteen years after the beginning of the German occupation, an Alsatian literature had sprung up. The Germans permitted it, not understanding that provincial patois was a sort of a fortress behind which Alsatian characteristics were sheltered."

Passing on to general questions regarding the war and its effect afterward, Pastor Wagner expressed the opinion that the world will be spiritually better for the great trial through which it has passed.

"The world will have observed," he said, "that there are things that cannot be put into the balance, invisible things that count, and from which good will come. Good will come even from the formidable exposition by men of bad sentimens that will make the rest of the world sick of living among them. Germany's abuse of power is a great object lesson that will be useful to future generations. America even, that great refuge of liberty, was finally forced to rebel against it. The lessons of the sacrifices that have been made by the young will improve the spirit of youth by emulation, while older people have been renovated mentally. The world generally will no longer admire the same things that it did before or will no longer admire them in the same way. It is not only my opinion but my sentiment; I feel myself spiritually renovated.

"The perfection to which German has brought the organization of falsehood will in itself disgust the world of lying: beginning with falsehoods regarding the origin of the war, falsehoods regarding first aggressions, falsehoods regarding the first use of suffocating gas, falsehoods at all times and on all subjects, prepared and disseminated with all the perfection of German method, will make the world hungry for truth and candor.

"It has been asked whether the result of this war is going to develop hatred between peoples that will be detrimental to our spiritual existence. If we cannot detest actions that are loathesome, how can we defend ourselves against all that goes with them? It will be necessary to extract all sensibility from the human soul before we can cease hating what it vile; in order to love what is good even, we must hate evil, and this opinion comes from a man who never harbored in his soul hatred against anyone. I do not say now that I personally hate Germany; she horrifies me.

"Please tell the American people for me," said Pastor Wagner in conclusion, "that France will never forget how disinterestedly and spontaneously they came to the aid of our afflicted population at a time when they themselves had no thought of being involved in or having a direct interest in the conflict."

Middletown Times Press (Middletown, New York), Thursday, April 26, 1917

German Agent Held in Buffalo

Niagara Falls, N.Y., April 26—John Wallenburg, 50 years old, of Buffalo arrested while prowling near the municipal water works plant today, admitted, the police say, that he had connections with a Buffalo German who plotted to destroy American property. He told the police, according to Superintendent Curry, that he had talked with a German in Buffalo who had offered him money and actually promised him $1,000 if he would obtain and deliver to No. 409 Oak Street, Buffalo, a quantity of nitro-glycerine and dynamite.

Wallenburg was grilled for hours by the police. He claims he was born in North Tonawanda.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Thursday, April 26, 1917

Buffalo Evening News, Thursday, April 26, 1917, p. 21


Employes Fit Themselves for Better Positions by Studying Books on Their Various Lines of Employment—A Mine of Information Available.

“There was a time when the public library was termed ‘The people’s university,’ but it has an even more credible name now,” said Walter L. Brown, city librarian, this morning.

“The people’s library is the people’s primary and college preparatory and technical school, all in one, and it is many other practical and beautiful things beside.”

Mr. Brown had just run through his daily grist of reports from the branch libraries. They bristled with instances of the way the library takes up almost any conceivable subject on which a patron or visitor seeks information.

A commercial chemist found in a public library book a formula that saved him many days of dubious experimentation. A housekeeper got in shortly before closing time, one night, with a tale of woe. In the midst of pickling, she had no vinegar and wanted a rule for making it. She was satisfactorily helped. A gymnasium director says he keeps his work “alive” by being constantly in touch with library books.

Then there is the young man who told the librarian he had advanced himself from wiper to first-class engineer by using library books and applying the information from them to his work. A mental worker won advancement by similar study. A woman got books that enabled her husband to pass highest in a civil service examination and he was promoted.

In the majority of these cases, folks just wander in and ask whether there are any books on such-and-such subjects. The library staff give them lists of books, ascertaining by tactful questioning exactly what line of reading matter will be most helpful. Thus the book borrowing habit is formed.

Women Get Recipes

A woman about to open her store did not know how to word her advertising until she was shown books on ad writing. Now she makes a study of the subject and is highly successful in business. A man who has out-of-town commercial connections declares he practically built up his business through addresses obtained from the directories and telephone books of the library.

It is nothing for a merchant to come in for information as to the location of some town, or to find out how much import duties are in foreign countries. It is a trifle out of the ordinary when a mother thanks the librarian for giving her “Mothercraft,” living up to the teachings of which book has enabled her to rear her fifth baby healthiest of all the family.

One housewife calls her home a “library house,” because it was planned and furnished from ideas gleaned at the library. Many citizens have helped themselves towards getting final naturalization papers by library work. A stenographer with a lucrative position taught himself shorthand from library books and is studying French. A stationary engineer ascribed his success in examination to the library.

An old man in poor health writes the librarian that he believes he would lose his mind but for the books members of his family bring him from a branch library; “a blessing to the people in this section,” he calls it.

Women drop in for recipes or to get helpful books for husbands who are about to take civil service examinations. Keen clerks study salesmanship and learn about the raw materials they sell in manufactured form. Ad writers, window trimmers—a host of folks in widely varied employments are constant library patrons, eager for the latest word in their lines by the experts and leaders who usually write such works.

Librarian Brown compiles booklets listing exactly what books to read if one would do backyard gardening, learn wireless telegraphy or become a machinist. The latest, “How To Do It,” directs young women to works on etiquette, conversation, entertaining, letter writing, handiwork, health and athletics, succeeding in business, making friends and “The Business of Life.”

Preparing List on Food

There is a list coming on plain foods and preparation of inexpensive meals, that will certainly be appreciated by the public. Ever since the war broke out, there has been a demand for books concerning the belligerent countries and the general subject of war.

Russian history is greatly in demand now and there is a lively call for books on military training since our own implication in the great war.

From this time until after the close of school terms there is always a run on books concerning vocations, parents and graduates alike seeking counsel. Library book borrowing attains it peak in March and declines with the lengthening of the day and the return of outdoor sports and attractions. Books of travel and nature study are popular before summer, but warm weather invariable sends light fiction to the head of the list.

There have been cases of men and women entering the public library and asking “whether it was free,” but they are not common here. The Buffalo library is as well known and understood as City hall. When an English commission studying American public libraries was in Buffalo several years ago, the members tried a favorite experiment of asking persons they encountered in or near the railroad depot where the public library was. Newsboys, policemen, well-dressed passersby, workmen in overalls—every one they asked here knew and the Britons said it was a rare experience.

The reference room is like a home study to men and women preparing to address clubs or other gatherings, including banqueters, and to debating society members and those preparing articles on special topics. The reading room is patronized by numbers during noon luncheon time, while many night workers come in the afternoon.

And, of course, the bookworm, faithful old standby of the library, is always on hand. The function of the library, great focus on public mental activity, however, is predominantly instruction in most practical matters. Librarian Brown says this side of the public library’s usefulness cannot be over-emphasized.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Friday, June 1, 1917



PARIS, June 1—Lieutenant Guynemer, France's superman of the air was officially credited today with destruction of four additional German machines, bringing his total record of destruction to 43 air planes. Two of his last four victims were downed simultaneously according to the official citation. The war office announcement todau said from May 17 to 21, the French had destroyed 31 enemy airplanes and 57 others had been brought down behind the enemy lines.


Georges Guynemer has received every decoration within the gift of the French nation and with today's record proves himself the master air fighter of the world. No other aviator has even approached his record of 43.

Guynemer is 31 years old. He has been twice wounded, once desperately. He was five times rejected for admission to the French army, on account of his slight build.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Monday, June 4, 1917

Aviator in Balky Plane
      Hides Behind German Lines


Cincinnati Man Remains Under Cover
      All Night, Repairs Engine and Returns
            to Allies' Headquarters.


PARIS, June 4—Corporal Edward Hinkle of Cincinnati had another narrow escape in an exploit of the American flyers of the Lafayette escadrille, news of which reached Paris today. Hinkle disappeared into the heavens for a day, but he finally got back, safe and sound.

Private J.A. Drexel of Philadelphia, Corporal Kenneth Marr of Alaska, Corporal Hinkle and Corporal Harold Willis of Boston were in a squadron of the Lafayette flyers who penetrated 15 miles back of the enemy lines. The four American aviators were widely separated in the sky. Three of them came back together, but there was no sign of Hinkle. All remembered last seeing him diving through a cloud. None of the three returned aviators had sighted a single enemy plane, but the sky was so flecked with clouds that it was feared a German aviator had brought him down.

The next day, however, Hinkle crossed back to his own side again, reporting his arrival far to the north, over the British front, near Soissons. He had become lost in the cloudy sky and his machine began behaving badly. He came down and lay hidden over night.

Lieutenant Maisonrouge of the French army was today announced as second in command of the Lafayette escadrille under Lieutenant William Thaw of Pittsburgh, in place of Lieutenant De Laage, who recently was killed in action.

Lieutenant Maisonrouge with Private Andrew Campbell of Chicago succeeded in downing a German plane over the enemy's line. It was Campbell's first flight as a fighting aviator.

Sergeant Willis Haviland of Minneapolis left a front hospital today on leave of abscence for convalescence.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Friday, June 8, 1917



Pelman Man Write Home of
      Odd Experience on


FORT ERIE, Ont., June 6—(Special)—A curious instance is reported from the battle front by Private Herbert Mitchell of Pelham townships, in writing home to his parents. The young soldier relates that he was recently severely wounded in the recent fighting around Arlieux, at a considerable distance from the German lines.

He managed to crawl a small distance towards the Canadian lines, but at length from weakness was compelled to remain stationary. He laid on the battlefield 24 hours, and gave himself up for lost. For him death held no further terror.

Suddenly through the early dawn, he saw two German soldiers approaching. To his amazement, they gently carried him to the Canadian lines, where avoiding the patrol, they laid him. He was soon rescued, taken to a dressing station, his wounds staunched and his life saved.

Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, New York), Tuesday, June 12, 1917



Captain Ronald True Declares
Kaiser's Aviators Are Good
Sports and Gentlemen—
Tells Experiences


Unspeakable as the German officer of the line may be, the air pilots that wear the kaiser's livery are not. On the word of men who have tested the mettle of the German flier, he is a good sport and a gallant gentleman. He fights hard, but he fights fair. His standards are quite difference from those of his rank who battle in the trenches.

Colonel Ronald True of the British royal flying corps, who has come to Buffalo from the French front, where he spent a year and a half on scout duty, has frequently "met up with" German aviators. He found them a fine lot of men. Their code squares with the code of the fliers of the allied armies. Lieutenant Dare Sach, who is here at the Statler with Captain True, and who has been with the British naval air corps, gives the same word of the German who fights in the air.

"The German flier is a sportsman, every inch of him," said True today, in telling something of his work on the French front. "I haven't met or heard of one that did not measure up to the best standards. You know, if a German is brought down behind the British lines, one of our men will fly over the German lines with a white handkerchief showing. He will not be attacked by the anti-air craft guns. They know that the British flier has word of a German. He will have gathered up the small personal effects of the man brought down. These he will drop behind the German lines, and with them word as to whether the German is killer or wounded. And the Germans will do the same for us."

Has Thrilling Brush

On True's finger was a ring with a skull and cross bones—a death's head—in gold. He had it from a German flier that he had brought down behind the German lines. The man had been a member of the crown prince's command, the death's head hussars before joining the air service.

"I had a bit of a brush with the fellow," True expalined. "Very decent chap, too, he was. I was out in the air one day and he rather objected to my being there. I was about 14,000 feet up when he challenged me. The idea, you know, in a fight in the air is to get behind and above your opponent. Well I managed to do that.

"I got a hit at him and he started a nose dive behind the his lines. They're a tricky lot—in a quite proper way. I was a bit chary,but I took after him. About 400 feet from the ground I got him. He was very badly messed up. That was about two miles behind the German lines. I came through all right back to our lines."

"But he hasn't always come through all right," Sach interposed. "He has 28 wounds on his body. You should see it. Quite a curiosity, I assure you."

Only 18 Years Old.

Sach is only 18 years old. He received his license as a pilot when he was 14 years old, the youngest flier in England. He was with the naval flying corps up to four months ago, when he and True were gazetted for civilian employment. Sach did most of his flying in attacks on Ostend and Zeebrugge, German naval bases.

"I was shot down once," said Sach. "My engine was hit but I managed to land on the beach near our station. My stomach was a bit upset."

The German flying men are not as active as they once were on the French front, according to True. The allies have gained the mastery of the air. The German now seldom attempts a flight over the lines of the allied armies. He holds pretty closely to the shelter of the anti-air craft guns of the kaiser's armies.

Biplane More Stable

The British employ the bi-plane as more stabel than the monoplane. Captain True said that the last machines he drove in France reached a speed of 136 miles an hour. There were many others in service equally as fast. The Germans like the monoplane. Their machines are light and fast, but they haven't stood the test as well as the craft of the allies. But True could not say enough about the engines of the German planes. It was far better than any of the allies had built, he told. And the allies could not duplicate them because they were unable to learn the secret of the alloys of aluminum that entered into the making of the engines.

During the time that Captain True and Lieutenant Sach are in the United States they hope to become attached to the government schools for the instruction of aviators.

The Indiana Gazette (Indiana County, Pennsylvania), Tuesday, June 26, 1917



H.E. Timberlake of Indiana, agent for the Buffalo German Insurance Company, received word this morning that the ompany [sic] had ordered a special Red Cross divident of 50¢ a share of the Capital Stock, payable on or before July 10, 1917. All directors of this company are either of German parentage or German descent, and the fact that Germany will not recognoze the Red Cross, shows the splendid American attitude of these men in the United States.



Shoulder to Shoulder in the


All Hail; Thrice Welcome to the


Today the 1200 members of the great society JOIN WITH the Allied Nations in the purpose for which the Bazaar is planned—the relief of suffering million of war-torn Europe.







Well Known Singing Society to Take Part in Allied Bazaar


The Buffalo Orpheus, whose members are mainly of Buffalo's oldest and best-known German families, will take part in the Allied Bazaar, which will open at the Broadway Auditorium May 23. Last night Maxwell M. Nowak, chairman of the executive committee of the the bazaar, received word from Jacob F. Mueller, president of the Orpheus, asking to be allowed to take part in the bazaar and permission was granted to the society immediately.

"We wish to show our great interest in the magnificent cause for which the bazaar is being perfected," said Mr. Mueller. "Our 1200 members are ready to take off their hats and coats and do their utmost to assemble money and merchandise for the alleviation of the sufferings of the men, women and children of the nations of Europe, which are now allied with the United States."

Mr. Mueller said that the fund to which the money raised through the efforts of the Orpheus should go would rest entirely with the executive committee. All the Orpheus asks is sufficient space to erect an attractive booth and do its best work during the life of the bazaar. The Orpheus will no doubt contribute a number of choruses during the bazaar.

"It is a splendid and most generous offer," said Mayor Fuhrmann when he heard of it.

Archer A. Landon, president of the bazaar, left last night for Washington bearing invitations from the mayor and several local organizations to members of the British and French missions to the United States to visit Buffalo and take in the bazaar. The invitations are addressed to Arthur J. Balfour of England, M. Viviaud and Marshal Joffre of France. An invitation is being drafted to Theodore Roosevelt to attend the bazaar. Plans are being perfected for the entertainment of former President Howard Taft on Memorial Day.

Everybody is invited to attend the mass meeting in the Majestic Theater tonight. The meeting is called by Mayor Fuhrmann and will be attended by representatives of all the divisions of the bazaar and addressed by men who will tell the public all about it.



George F. Barth

The funeral of George F. Barth, for many years proprietor of the bookbinding shop at 45 North Division street, who died on Tuesday, is to take place tomorrow afternoon at 2 o'clock from the family home, 237 Landon street. Mr. Barth succumbed to an attack of pneumonia after an illness of but a few days.

Mr. Barth was a life-long resident of Buffalo. A host of friends is deeply shocked at his death. He was born in this city 54 years ago, and for the past quarter century had been engaged in the business of manufacturing blank books. He was a member of Queen City Lodge No. 358, F. and A.M. Mr. Barth is survived by his widow, Theresia J. Barth; two sons, George F. Barth and John W. Barth, and a daughter, Marguerite S. Barth.


Carroll Johnson

Carroll Johnson, well known as an old time minstrel, died yesterday morning in New York city at the age of 60 years. Mr. Johnson's sister-in-law, Mrs. Filon H. Van Ness of 77 Mariner street, was notified of his death by her husband and daughter who were with Mr. Johnson when he died.

The minstrel is survived by his widow, who was Mary Ann Hogle of Medina. The last time that Mr. Johnson appeared in Buffalo was several years ago at Shea's.

      AT Y.M.C.A.'S CAMP.


It was determined at a special meeting of the committee governing the Camp Angola-on-the-Lake branch of the Buffalo Y.M.C.A. yesterday that semi-military and physical training will be a feature of the seventh season of this specially constructed men's camp. Chairman George B. Burd announced that Physical Director J.Y. Cameron and his assistant, Charles K. Herrick, of Central branch, and possibly Captain Robert W. Farrington will be in charge of the training during the first two weeks in July at Camp Angola.

If this feature is found to be popular it will be continued throughout the summer. The camp will remain open until Labor Day. As the Camp Angola branch has purchased several additional acres of land adjoining the original camp site, it is possible some farming features now contemplated will be adopted also. Soil is to go forward this week to the state agricultural department for test.

The campers will sleep in tents. A new kitchen has been erected adjoining the mess hall accomodating 75 persons.

          IS TO DO ITS BIT


Will Bear Expense of Carrying
   Out Government War
      Legislation here


At a conference in the mayor's office yesterday afternoon of members of the home defense committee, in which representatives of the city and county government participated, it was decided that the county of Erie will bear all the expense of carrying out any war laws passed by congress. The government has asked counties to do this whereever possible. Within a short time the act for the registration of all male citizens of war age will be in force and the county will carry out the provisions of the bill without expense to the federal government. So with any other measures.

At the conference for the city were the mayor, City Clerk Sweeney, Health Commissioner Fronczak and Corporation Counsel Rann. The county was represented by Sheriff Stengel, county Clerk Meahl and county Auditor Buck. Owing to the size of the board of supervisors and the trouble of having them meet on a hurry call, it was decided that the city is to appropriate $10,000 for the immediate purposes of the committee and the supervisors will reimburse the city later.

Later members of the home defense committee and heads of several sub-committees met with these city and county officials and selected George A. Davis as chairman of a sub-committee to work out a plan which will bring all the various committees and agencies interested in home defense preparations into harmony with each other and into a closer working relation.

Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Friday, August 24, 1917





Principals Quickly Squelched—Deportation Proceedings Against Alleged I.W.W. Workers.


The federal internment camp at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., has claimed three more Buffalo Germans. George Pohler, Fred Benzing and Frank Kurfurst, three Germans who were arrested by department of justice agents here about a month ago for alleged pro-German activities at the Pierce plant, leave Buffalo for Fort Oglethorpe on Sunday night.

Since their arrest the men have been interned at the jail, waiting an order from Washington directing their removal. On Sunday night they will be taken to New York city by Deputy United States Marshal John McDonough. There they will be placed on board a special train with other prisoners and taken south.

Pohler, Benzing and Kurfurst were arrested by Special Agents Arthur Barkley and Edward D. Strickland while at work in the Pierce plant. Two other men were arrested with them. The officials refuse to talk about the cases of these two men. One of the men who is interned was a foreman at the plant and the other two worked under him.

The arrests came after a long surveillance of the men. It is said they not only showed decided leanings towards the German cause but were heard to discuss plots. One of the men, it is said, openly boasted of a plot under way.

The order directing the internment of these men is the second affecting men arrested in Buffalo. The first internment as a result of the war was Mike Poppa, who was unable to give the federal authorities here a clear account of himself and his actions.

Disposition of two other cases involving alleged I.W.W. activities are under way by the government. The immigration department has started deportation proceedings against a Spaniard, who admitted he was an organizer for the I.W.W. and another man who was arrested with several others and who was discharged by a United States commissioner.

Buffalo Commercial, Tuesday, September 25, 1917

AT A SPECIAL TERM OF THE Supreme Court of the State of New York, held at the City and County Hall, in the City of Buffalo, on the 10th day of September, 1917.

Present: Hon. Herbert P. Bissell, Justice Presiding

In the matter of the application of the Buffalo German Insurance Company for authority to change its name to the Buffalo Insurance Company.

Upon reading and filing the petition of the Buffalo German Insurance Company, a domestic stock corporation, duly verified by John G. Wickser, its President, wherein said petitioner prays for an order authorizing it to assume another corporate name, to wit: the name Buffalo Insurance Company, and upon filing the certificate of the Superintendent of Insurance, annexed thereto, consenting to such change of its corporate name, and certifying that the name which such corporation proposes to assume, does not conflict with the name of any other corporation now reporting to the Department of Insurance, or to the Banking Department, or to the Secretary of State, as appears from his records and from letters from the Superintendent of Banks and the Secretary of State, respectively, on file in his Department: upon filing proof that copies of the petition herein and copies of the notice of motion were duly filed with the Superintendent of Insurance, and with the Secretary of State respectively; and upon filing due proof by affidavits showing that notice of the presentation of said petition has been duly published once each week for three successive weeks in the Buffalo Evening News, a newspaper of the County of Erie, in which County such corporation has its business office, and designated for such purpose by the Supeintendent of Insurance, and the Court being satisfied by said petition and by the affidavits,certificates and proofs presented therewith, that the petition is true, and that there is no reasonable objection to the change of name proposed, and that the petition has been duly authorized, and that notice of the presentation of the petition, as required by law, has been made:

Now, on motion of Palmer, Houck & Wickser, Philip J. Wickser of Counsel, Attorneys for said petitioner, and no one opposing, it is

Ordered, that said petition be and the same hereby is granted, and the the petitioner herein, The Buffalo German Insurance Company, be and hereby is authorized to assume another corporate name, to wit: on and after the 10th day of October, 1917, and it is further

Ordered and directed that this order be entered, and the papers on which it is granted, be filed, within ten days from the date hereof, in the office of the Clerk of Erie County, the county in which the certificate of incorporation is filed, and that certified copies of this order, within 10 days after the entry thereof. be filed in the office of the Secretary of State and the Superintendent of Insurance, respectively, and further, that a copy of this order be published once a week for four successive weeks in the Buffalo Commercial, a newspaper, in the County of Erie, beginning within ten days after the entry hereof.

                        HERBERT P. BISSELL,
            Justice of the Supreme Court
Granted Sept. 10, 1917
                        Sp. Dep. Clerk
STATE OF NEW YORK—County of Erie

            I. John H. Meahl, Clerk of the Couty of Erie, and also Clerk of the Supreme and County Courts for said County, the same being Courts of record do hereby certify that I (Seal) have compared the annexed copy of Order with the original thereof, entered and on file in the office of the Clerk of Erie County, and that the same is a correct transctipt therefrom and of the whole of said original.

In Witness Whereof. I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal of said County and Courts at Buffalo this 10th day of Sept., 1917
No. 4723
            JOHN H. MEAHL,

Tägliches Cincinnatier Volksblatt, Tuesday, December 4, 1917

(From the “Buffalo Demokrat” issue of December 1st.)


The “Buffalo Demokrat” closes today’s issue on the eightieth year of its existence and will quietly celebrate tomorrow, as is befitting the times, only within its tightest family circle its eighty-first birthday. The managers of this newspaper look back with well-deserved pride on the past eight decades. Whereas during the length of time so many German-American publications have gone to their graves, the “Buffalo Demokrat” has remained true to its founding principles to preserve and advance the best interests of the German community in this country. Eighty years is a long stretch of time for a German newspaper to exist in a non-German speaking country where the German community counts as only a minority of the population. And yet the German press in the United States has fulfilled its great mission of providing a goodly portion of cultural wealth.

What would become of the Americanized German community without the German-American press? At most it would be cultural fertilizer according to a declaration by Bismarck. Instead the German press has aspired to bring the German community together and keep it together, to use and promote the German language, German literature and art. And to a large extent it has done that. Indeed, the “Buffalo Demokrat” has contributed its utmost effort in the eighty years of its publication. Without bragging we believe we may say this here.

Eighty years! What epochal events in world history have transpired in this interval? Much has been swept away. Many new things have come into being. The “Buffalo Demokrat” reported on all the great events while honestly and conscientiously filling in the local crevasses. It has been a leader and admonisher to its readers concerning politics and culture. It has held the banner of the German community high and represented the concerns of the citizens of German origin.

With eighty years the “Buffalo Demokrat” has become one of the oldest German American newspapers. Only the “Cincinnati Volksblatt” and the “New Yorker Staats-Zeitung” have earlier birthdays. This is impressive considering the age of German-American newspapers usually runs between 50 to 70 years.

Today the “Buffalo Demokrat” looks back on its eighty years of earnest operation and ambition, its eighty years of hard work and effort, and also, we may say its history of accomplishments. Without having been acknowledged the newspaper could not have existed for so long. Each of these eighty years was a year of doing battle, as grueling a battle as one will fight only when a goal of mighty worth comes to light and when one can be fought only if the combatant is fortified by the acknowledgement of those for whom he does battle.

The German press was a necessity in America in general and in Buffalo. From the beginning German immigrants found themselves at a disadvantage with the English-speaking communities due to their lack of knowledge of the country’s language. In order to reasonably participate in the public activities of the republic they needed advice and instruction in their mother tongue. The German newspapers explained to them the laws of their second homeland. They provided the German public with information about their neighborhood and the farther reaching region. They gave facts about the big questions vexing the public. They prompted and drafted possible means of participation in the political process, explained laws and customs against which they often fought and continue to zealously fight today. The German newspapers turned their countrymen into good citizens or at least contributed in significant measure to that end.

These are proud words but we believe we have a right to say them and we believe that the German American press may also have served in fullest measure native-born Americans. Without a doubt the German press has always been willing and ready, if they found they were compelled, to instruct their countrymen about their duties to their new homeland and to inform the new citizens of their rights whenever anyone tried to deny them. The German press would never allow its community to be treated as a second class citizen and always urged it to take an active role in public administration. That alone often led to problems for the German press. Today as always during the course of the past eighty years the “Buffalo Demokrat” has been a loyal and responsible friend to Buffalo’s German community, conscientiously monitoring the pulse of German life and acting as the chronicler of German works and endeavors. The newspaper business may grow older with each year but the newspaper itself will remain young and vital as long as it remains true to its mission, its readership, and itself. The “Buffalo Demokra”t strives towards this goal as much now as ever before.

On the eve of its eighty-first birthday this octogenarian wishes to thank the German community of this city and this country for demonstrating its loyalty to the ”Buffalo Demokrat” and also thank the Anglo-American business world for its continuing patronage. It wishes to assure all that it will remain diligent and that it will continue to maintain its reliability in the future.

Flour from Cottonseeds. A manufacturer of cottonseed oil in Texas has brought cottonseed flour to the marketplace. It has proven itself infinitely suitable when mixed with wheat flour to produce not only flavorful and nutritious bread but also waffles, pancakes, cakes and cornbread. The proportions are one part cottonseed flour to four parts wheat flour. The factory produces 24 tons of flour daily. The bread is similar to rye bread and has found particular favor among the European-born. It costs about 4 cents per pound and is supposedly more nutritious than wheat flour and more digestible. The factory packages it in various ways, in boxes, sacks and barrels, all of which have instructions on the product’s proper usage.

Der Tägliche Demokrat (Davenport, Iowa), Thursday, December 13, 1917

Der Demokrat
Established 1851

Publisher: H. Lischer Printing Co.
Office 219-221 West 4th St.

Entered at the Postoffice at Davenport as Second Class Matter

Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or not otherwise credited in this paper and also the local news published herein.
All right of republication of special dispatches herein are also reserved.

Outside Advertisement Representative:
Howard C. Story,
   664 Peoples Gas Bldg., Chicago, Ill.
   806 Nassau Bldg., New York
   924 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa.

The "Daily Demokrat", including the Sunday edition, six issues per week, subscription in this city is 12 ½ cents each week or $6.00 yearly prepaid with free delivery.

Postage outside the city to any post office in the United States, Canada or Mexico $3.00 yearly prepaid.

The Sunday edition by mail only to any post office in the United States costs $1.50 prepaid.

The "Semiweekly Demokrat" available by post in the United States and by carrier in the city $3.00 prepaid.

To Europe $4.50 prepaid.


Professional Germans

In a certain portion of our English language newspapers where Germans are not taken as a whole to be unamerican or branded as traitors, a distinction is make between loyal Germans and professional Germans. Despite best efforts people might not be able to discover who falls under the rubric professional German, the "Cincinnatier Freie Presse" [Cincinnati Free Press] correctly states. One can only guess that this term may refer to the editorial staffs of German newspapers.

If that is the case it bespeaks a gross misunderstanding of the affairs of the German American press or an intentional misrepresentation of its existence. A newspaper's direction is determined by its founders and the founders of the German-American press were men who sought to flee the political turbulence of their homelands and seek refuge in this county. Here they found their ideal—a country in which the police may not watch the every move of its citizenry; a country which prizes freedom of the press as the highest of values and ultimately allows each individual to live according to his own reckoning. These men were turned into outspoken Americans and since they found themselves in favorable circumstances, they set themselves the task of informing their readers about the advantages of America's attitudes.

Their successors have all operated under the same mindset. The blending of American freedom with German culture has been their guiding principle since the earliest days and it remains so to this day. The progeny of native Germans have encountered strong convictions in the German- American press. It enthusiastically promotes the cultural life of Germany but not the political reality. Its political opinions are fully rooted in American soil and over the course of the years those roots have plowed deeper. Today the German-American newspapers are dedicated to the readership of Germans firmly settled in this country and acknowledge a common fate with all the other citizens of this land. It is slanderous to call the editors of these newspapers professional Germans who attempt to sabotage the American politcal system. They couldn't go down such a path if they wanted to because they would have to deal with the decisive displeasure of its readership.

It's no different with our political leaders. We need only think back to Karl Schurz, who achieved unmatched status in the government. Karl Schurz strongly valued German culture and recommended that his countrymen retain it while diligently maintaining American viewpoints in the political arena. He taught that no one can be a loyal citizen of two countries. His allegiance can only belong to the country he calls home. By right America may claim our unflinching loyalty because it fulfills all German ideas of a true government by the people. There was no conflict within this teaching. It was enthusiastically taken up by all Germans who were worthy to become leaders in this country and by all Germans who spoke and acted in the public forum. However people have attempted to cast suspicion upon our leaders in recent times and aver that the German-American National Assembly conducts itself in an unamerican manner. That is a gross untruth. This Assembly acts in accordance with the views of Karl Schurz, furthering his efforts to maintain American opinions and advance nothing which might be unworthy of the values of our homeland. He promoted the use of the German language in order to maintain German culture so that those who used it might be deemed worthy by educated Americans, not merely Americans of German descent but all Americans. His propaganda stands in service to the United States and no other country. *)

What has been said about professional Germans is an evil fiction. Germans, who work in the public forum, hold as their highest goal the nurturing of American ideals in their countrymen.

*) What the Cincinnatier "Freie Presse" says about the ideals, purposes and goals of the German-American Assembly [Known as "The Bund"] is undoubtedly correct and in keeping with those thousands of citizens of German birth or extraction who have joined the Assembly and are diligently trying to clarify these ideals, purposes and goals. However—there's just as little double that the state and municipal groups who belong to the National Assembly may have been infiltrated by citizens of German birth or extraction and gained leadership roles in order to support their own political agendas at the state and local level. If the expression "professional Germans" is applied to them, the designation may not be inaccurate. But this is not what enemies of the German press had in mind as in their accusatory ignorance they think about the situation with Germany and the networks among the citizens of German birth or extraction. (Remark by the Editors of the Demokrat.)

Political News and Other Events

—The Bolsheviks have confiscated the three hunded million dollars in gold of the Russian Treasury. As of now it's still a miracle that this treasure is still at hand.

*   *   *

—The number of millionaires in the United States has quadrupled this year. The number of people, whose income is significantly lower, has increased a thousand fold.

*   *   *

—A government official from Louisianna would like the reason for the sugar shortage to be investigated. However hands are tied since you can't investigate the problem without also investigating Louisianna, the Sugar State par excellence!

*   *   *

—"There aren't a hundred men in America who can think internationally," says Henry Morgenthau. The main point is that we have fifty million men who think nationally.

*   *   *

—The large slaughterhouses have protested that the government will only allow them to make a nine percent profit. They seem to believe it's more important that they win instead of Uncle Sam.

*   *   *

—When talking and writing get us in trouble, silence is golden. It's unfortunate for cautious newspaper editors that this gold standard can also destroy any bridge crossing over the floodwaters of rising food prices.

*   *   *

Hope is the deep breath of the soul;
As soon as a thousand men release their breath
And full measure of hope is released,
A door is forced open for a new thousand men.
   Raupach, "Tasso's Death", Act 7, scene 2.

*   *   *

—After the great Chicago meat barons announced in loud fanfare that they would submit to the orders of the Food Administration officials they started to protest that 9 percent profit was not enough. Perhaps they will be satisfied with less—perhaps they'll have to!

*   *   *

—Last Monday the head of the National Food Adminstration, Herbert Hoover, placed all the bakeries in the country under government control. Since last Monday all businesses which produce baked goods of any variety must be licensed. All small bakeries which use less than 10 barrels of flour per month are exempted from licensing. The provisions, which will be closely monitored, no question will bring with them large conservation of sugar, fat, flour and milk. A preliminary test in Indianapolis (225,000 residents) shows that the large bakeries have reduced the price of bread by 1 to 1 ½ cents. One can now expect that small bakeries will reduce their prices as well. The small bakeries are not under the control of the Food Administrator but it may be possible that this may induce them to reduce their prices.

*   *   *

—Shortly after the publicizing of a telegram from Pittsburgh concerning the eradication of all German language books from the public schools, a telegram from Northhampton, Massachusetts reported that the president of Smith College, William Allen Neilson, stated during an address to the students: "Victory over Germany will not be achieved by denying all German virtues and underestimating its power but by surpassing its characteristic strengths. By refraining from this mistake we take away the friendship of the world. The efficiency of the German Army and the resolve of the German people are sufficient proofs that there exists no total corruption in the heart of the nation as many would have us believe. Nothing is gained if we close our eyes to the magnificent energy of the enemy...What I have to say I say for reason of personal observations and many visits in Germany during the last twelve years, the latest during the early war years especially in southern Germany."

The Times Dispatch (Richmond, Virginia???), Saturday, January 5, 1918



German Alien Held by Department of
      Justice When Maps of City
         Are Found.

BUFFALO, N.Y., January 4.—Suspected of having been implcated in the arson plot which resulted in the destructive fire at Norfolk, Va. Wednesday, a German alien, giving his name as Richard H. Batouu, thirty-two, member of the crew of an interned German liner, was arrested late to-day by Department of Justice officials. When taken Batouu had a complete set of maps of Norfolk in his possession.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Wednesday, February 27, 1918

A Buffalo German who made remarks against the President and in favor of the Kaiser was sentenced to six months in the penitentiary. Another Buffalo German who spoke scurrilously of the drafted men was fined $100. Both sentences were made by Judge Brennan. "An upright judge, a learned judge!"

Springville Journal (Springville, New York), Thursday, March 28, 1918



Paragraphs of Interest to Readers of Empire State


News of All Kinds Gathered From Various Points in the State and So Reduced in Size That It Will Appeal to All Classes of Readers

Hornell will probably go dry by 1,800.

Livingston county has a list of 25 draft deserters.

Sodus is considering the question of incorporation.

Buffalo's German-American bank is now the Liberty bank.

Chautauqua county bee farmers plan to form an organization.

Of 13,000 registered voters in Jamestown, 6,000 are women.

Geneva reports poor prospects for sour cherries because of blight.

Fred W. Hastings is chairman of the third Liberty loan for Bath.

Charlotte is being pointed out as a suitable place for shipbuilding.

Rochester's Home Defense League is now ready for any emergency.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), Monday, April 22, 1918



Von Richthofen, Credited
   with 80 Victories, Downed
      in Somme Valley




London, April 22—Captain Baron von Richthofen, the famous German aviator, has been killed, Reuter's correspondent at British Headquarters reports.

The captain was brought down in the Somme Valley, his body was recovered and will be buried today with military honors.

An official statement reporting aerial operations issued yesterday at Berlin said:
"Baron Richthofen, at the head of his trusty chasing squadron (on Saturday) gained his 79th and 80th victories."

With the British Army in France, April 22, by the Associated Press)—Baron Richthofen, the famous German aviator, was shot down and killed last night back of the British lines along the Somme front.

Details of the death of the airman are lacking, but as showing the temper of British officers it may be said the correspondent heard the ardent hope expressed that Richthofen died fighting in an air battle with a worthy opponent rather than by being shot down by anti-aircraft guns.

The German "flying circus" leader will be buried with military honors today near the spot where he crashed and an impressive ceremony is being planned by the British officers.


Since Captain Boelcke was shot down in October, 1916, Captain von Richthofen has been the most prominent and successful German aviator. On April 8 the German War office announced that he had achieved his seventy-eighth aerial victory, although in this as in previous citations he was not credited explicitly with having brought down an Allied airplane.

Captain von Richthofen first came into prominence as leader of the "Flying Circus," a squadron of German aviators which fought in a peculiar circular formation, following each other around so that in case one was attacked the next flyer could sweep the antagonist from the rear. Recently Emperor William conferred upon him the Order of the Red Eagle.

Daily Arkansas Gazette (Little Rock, Arkansas), Wednesday, April 24, 1918




Beautiful Tribute Is Paid to
Baron von Richthofen,
Intrepid Aviator


(By Staff Correspondent of the Associated Press)

With the British Army in France, April 23.—Many British fighting men and aviation officers, as well as Americans stationed at an airdrome near by, attended the burial yesterday of Captain Baron von Richthofen, in the graveyard of a little hamlet near Sailly Le Sac where he was shot down in an aerial combat Sunday. It was an impressive funeral, worthy of the greatest aviator yet produced by the Central allies. No finer rite could have been performed had it been the premier Allied pilot who lost his life, instead of this intrepid German, whom all honored.

The thoughts of those who stood while the army chaplain read the beautiful Church of England service were expressed in an inscription on one of the floral wreaths: "A valiant and worthy foe."

One striking touch was added to the ceremony. As the chaplain took his place by the grave a squadron of British airplanes came circling from all direction and throughout the service, wheeled over the graveyard at a low altitude, There [sic] droning engines furnishing an accompaniment to the words of the clergyman.

Died Fighting in Air

Captain von Richthofen died fighting in the air, as he undoubltedly would have chosen. It is not certain how he met his death, but the main details appear to be fairly well established.

The captain, with his "flying circus" of more than 20 planes, came flwing [sic] toward the British lines near Sailly Le Sac, on the Somme, at about noon Sunday. The Germans were seeking British prey which they hoped to surround and finish off when the illfated airman had no way to escape. As they neared the fighting front they encountered two British airplanes. Captain von Richthofen left his followers and started on a furious pursuit of these machines.

Fought Two Planes

Meanwhile a score of other British planes came swirling up and engaged the Germans. The captain kept after his man in an attempt to outmaneuver him. The British plane, which was accompanying the one under attack got above the Germans. The three machines raced toward the British lines, their machine guns chattering like mad. They kept getting lower, until at last, when they were about 50 yards back of the British trenches, they were only a few hundred feet in the air. Meanwhile the other German machines were fighting the British squadron more than three miles away.

Machine guns and rifles on the ground came into action against Captain von Richthofen, who also was being fire at by at least one of his adversaries in the air. Suddenly his machine turned its nose downward and crashed to the earth.

Forced to Break Defenses

Von Richthofen apparently was killed while trying to break through the British serial defenses in the Anere region in order that the enemy reconnaissance machines might cross the lines to make observations on the defenses. A document captured Sunday reveals the reasons for his presence there. It is a communication from the "group command of aviation" to the first pursuit squadron of which Von Richthofen's eleventh pursuit flight was part, saying:
"It is not possible to fly over the Anere in a westerly direction on account of strong enemy opposition. I request that this serial barrage be forced to break in order that a reconnaissance up to the line of Marieux-Puchenvillers (10 miles from the front) be carried out."




German Reports Say That Von Richthofen Was Victim of Chance Shot

Amsterdam, April 23.—According to official German accounts of Captain von Richthofen's end, he was pursuing at a low altitude an enemy battleplane, when apparently motor trouble forced him to land behind enemy lines. As he made a smooth landing it was hoped he had only been captured until the British reports were received announcing his death.

As Von Richthofen was pursuing an enemy plane at the time, the accounts say he could not well have been hit by his opponent's fire and it is believed that he was the victim of a chance shot from the ground.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Saturday, May 18, 1918



Buffalo Branch of Order May at Least
   Change Its Name, President


Members of the board of directors of the Buffalo German-American Alliance will meet in the near future to discuss the question of dissolving the local branch of the society, or at least changing its name. The national organization has dissolved and has turned its funds over to the Red Cross, while the state organization was dissolved by act of the state legislature. The Buffalo branch voted to continue as an organization.

A recent resolution of the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce bars members of the alliance from membership in the trade board.

The Buffalo Commercial (Buffalo, New York), Tuesday, June 25, 1918



Members of the German-American Alliance may soon find themselves all dressed up with no place to go. They have been barred from membership in the Rotary Club by the adoption of a resolution by the board of directors. This resolution calls upon men who may be members of the alliance and of the club to resign from one organization. The resolution condemns the alliance as un-American and unpatriotic.