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Between the World Wars: Articles from the Syracuse Union, available through the New York State Newspaper Project

January-December 1921


January 6, 1921, p.4

Pessimism in the German Press

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German's Situation based on the Widest Range of Opinions
described as Hopeless

The entire German Press expresses utter pessimism in this new year. Last year the tone was the exact opposite.

The reactionary and monarchal newspapers attack both Bolshevism and French militarism, declaring that Germany has been enslaved and that it receives no justice from the Allies, just lip service.

The newspapers of the everyday citizens such as the Vossische Zeitung and the Tageblatt [Berliner Tageblatt und Handels-Zeitung] decry the clilapse of Germany's banks and industrial complex as well as the massive unemployment.

The communist newspaper Freiheit [Freedom] declares new battles are on the horizon without explaining what it means.

The Rote Fahne [Red Flag] expresses itself quite clearly: the rich will secure its money outside the country, leaving 20,000,000 German workers and their children to starve. The ranks of the unemployed will increase by millions, the wages in factories will drastically decrease while the workday will increase to 12 or 15 hours.

Lead articles such as the following illustrate the situation with which Germany is confronted:

  1. Rising Starvation.
  2. The possibility that the French will withhold coal shipments so that factories will have to close and unemployment will increase.
  3. Further devaluation of the Mark.
  4. France's new and unreasonable demands.
  5. The eventual occupation of the Ruhr district.
  6. Fear of the Bolshevic threat.
  7. Danger of a Russian invasion or a new Russian-Polish offensive against Germany's eastern border in the Spring and the loss of Upper Silesia to the Poles.
  8. Germany's loss of Bavaria to France.
  9. Greater tax burden than the German people can bear.

Regarding possible remedies for the situation the Press considers revision of the Versaille Treaty the only means whereby Germany will be saved along with a propaganda compaign retracting all the lies told about Germany during the war, which placed it on the pillory and generated such hatred against it.


The "Syracuse Union" is the only
German-language newspaper published in Syracuse.
Established in 1852.
Syracuse Union
An ad in the Syracuse Union"
always brings the best results.
Businessmen confirm this.


No. 4
Thursday, January 27, 1291 [1921]
Volume 69


February 17, 1921 p.4

German Language Instruction reintroduced in the High Schools of Chicago

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In a bulletin sent by Superintendent Peter A. Mortensen to his high school principals, classes for the study of the German language will begin again in the high schools of Chicago. Instruction of German had ended when the United States entered the war.

"German will receive the same level of attention in the high schools as any other modern language," Superintendent Mortensen said. "With the opening of classes principals are authorized to handle arrangements as circumstances dictate."


March 17, 1921 p.4

"I dispute the thoroughly American opinion that it is desirable for the German to stop speaking his mother tongue. The German language has never inflicted harm to the intellectual development or the political principles of others. Instead it has been a treasure trove for the development of literature, science and ideas. We German-Americans will continue to speak German." —Karl Schurz.


March 17, 1921 p.8

German Instruction in Minneapolis

Minneapolis, Minn. — According to the most recent meeting of the Minneapolis School Board, German instruction will recommence in the Mill State after a three-year hiatus.

No member of the school board raised an objection as the proposal to reintroduce German instruction was made. One member referred to a recently issued report from the Federal Bureau of Education in Washington, which considered German instruction necessary for international relations, foreign trade and commerce.


March 31, 1921 p.5

Dedication of the Harugari Temple in Buffalo.

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With the acquisition of the Columbia Gymnasium the Harugari Order has gained a useful new property to use as a lodge. The official dedication ceremony occurred last Monday, March 28th and an excellent program was presented. The sale price was only $38,000, which was provided by the Goehler Lodge No. 627, the Schiller Lodge No. 494, Black Lodge No. 35, Hoffnung Manme No. 55, Hertha Lodge No. 128, Henrietta Lodge No. 171, and the Ex-Barden Verein. The temple is located at 1261-65 Genesee St. There are five stores on the ground floor and a gym and bowling alley located to the rear. The halls are located on the upper floor.

Max Schneider, Grand Overseer of New York State and popular tailor at N.G. Peter's Clothing Store on North Salina St., attended the dedication. He was full of praise for the hospitality of the Buffalo Harugari Lodges. Representing Superior Grand Overseer Eugen Ullmicher of New York State, Brother Schneider gave a speech which received resounding applause.

We list the full program of festivities here:

  • March — "The Hauptstadt" [The Capitol]
     Overture — The Golden Scepter"
     Waltz — "On the Beautiful Blue Danube"
     Tafelmeier's Orchestra
  • "God Greet You - The United Singing Societes of Buffalo, N.Y.
    Conducted by Prof. A. Buettner
  • Greeting the Guests by President of the Administrative Council, Brother Joseph Roesch
  • Festival Address delivered by former Superior Grand Bard of the United States Grand Lodge, Brother George H. Gebauer
  • Solo Performance: "Immer weiter, immer weiter" by J. Reuter.
    Biographical sketch performed by G. Labour of the Drama Club of the Harugari Frohsinn
    Piano Accompaniment by Gregor Tafelmeier
  • Speech by the Superior Grand Bard of the United States Grand Lodge, Brother Wm. Holz of Allentown, Pa.
    "The Fraternities in the United States"
  • Speech by the Grand Bard of the New York State Grand Lodge, Brother August Koester, Rochester, N.Y.
    "The Fraternities in New York State"
  • "Schäfer's Sonntagslied" [Shepherd's Sunday Hymn]
    United Singing Societies of Buffalo, N.Y.
    conducted by Prof. A. Buettner
  • Speech by Grand Overseer, Brother Max Schneider, Syracuse, N.Y.
    "The Hertha Ranks"
  • Speech by Sister E. Andres,
    Grand ??????? Watch, Toledo, Ohio
  • Speech by Grand Secretary of the New York State Grand Lodge, Brother Gottlieb Frank of Buffalo
  • Speech in English by Ex-District Deputy Grand Bard, Brother Heinrich W. Brendel
  • Speech by the initiator of efforts to acquire a Harugari Temple, Brother Ex-District Grand Bard Grefor Tafelmeier
  • Comic Scene: "A Merry Court Session"
    Performers:
    Judge: Eernst Rheinhold
    Defendant: George Labour
    Servant: August Pinske
    Presented by the Drama Club of the Harugari Frohsinn
    Piano Accompaniment by Gregor Tafelmeier
  • "America"

    During the following dance program sisters of Hertha Lodge No, 128 and Henrietta Lodge 171 gave a gymnasitics performance under the direction of Ex-district Deputy Grand Bard Sister Henrietta Hess.


April 14, 1921, p.8 col.1-2

The Revolution 400 Years Ago

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On April 18, 1521 Martin Luther stood before the Diet of Worms and proclaimed Religious and Personal Freedom

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Dreadful Upheaval in the History of the World and the Aftermath

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New York, April 10. Four hundred years ago on April 18, 1521 Martin Luther, the German monk and church reformer, stood before the Diet of Worms and refused to withdraw his theses on religious freedom. This led to a powerful intellectual and religious revolution.

There were many inquiries as to whether or not Luther would recant.

The Revolution historically examined

History writers agree that Luther brought about a compelling revolution because of his firm resolve before the Diet of Worms in 1521. It also brought dreadful changes to the world.

In 1520 , a year before the Diet of Worms, Luther wrote three epochal works: "The Christian Nobility and the German People," "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church," and "On Christian Freedom." In these works he clearly outlined his theology.

In the meantime the papal nuncios Eck and Alexander delivered a papal bull to Germany. Luther publically burned this bull on December 10th. Leo X insisted that Kaiser Karl of Germany declare the ban on Luther. Karl was prepared to do this, however the German princes insisted that Luther should not be condemned without prior questioning. As a result Luther was invited to appear before the German Diet and explain his position.

The Trial

The trial was scheduled for April 17th and Luther was called before the Diet at 6 that evening. Why should the monk be tried? What had he done? He had written 95 theses opposing the misuse of indulgences. He had taught that the bible was the only authority in the church. He insisted on a belief in Jesus Christ and good works. He had assailed the doctrines of the papacy. All he had to say was the word "Revoco," I revoke.

However Luther came before the Diet the next day and gave his answer. "Do you wish to defend or renounce at least certain portions in your books? This was the question to which Luther responded in German and in Latin.

Luther answered in great detail. He said he was prepared to renounce his books and throw them into the fire if anyone could prove to him that he had preached heresy. Eck was displeased with his answer. He asked Luther whether or not he would revoke. Luther responded in these words:

"Since Your Imperial Majesty, Your Princely Highnesses and Gracious Subjects desire a simple, uncontrived and and true answer, I will give you one which contains neither horns nor fangs. And I will rely on Holy Scripture or clear reasoning in defense. I have no faith in the pope or the ecumenical councils because it is a well known fact that they offen commit errors and contradict each other. Additionally since my writings provide proof to the contrary and I begin with my knowledge of God's Word, nothing can or will be revoked. Nothing is deduced nor established as factual which is contrary to conscience, so help me God! Amen!

Luther stood firmly by his position. On his return journey home he was overtaken by his friends and taken to Wartburg for his own safety. There in December, 1521 he began his translation of the Latin bible into German, simultaneously creating a literary form of German still written and spoken today.

Luther received an imperial bann and his life was declared forfeit. Despite this he lived and worked contentedly until his death by natural causes in February 1546.

The religious freedom and civil liberties which we Americans prize so highly are the result of the independence which Luther proclaimed in Worms as the hereditary right of human beings.


April 21, 1921, p.1

The German Newspapers

The conservative and monarchal newspapers exhibit the black band of mourning around the headline "Our Empress is Dead." They describe the tragedies in her life which must have led to her end in a foreign country.

The radical newspapers make the announcement unobtrusively in an interior column along with a warning that the monarchists will exploit the empress's early death to further their political agenda.

The progressives say that efforts to turn the former empress into a martyr and heroine must fail. She deserves no greater recognition than any German mother.

Freiheit [Freedom], the organ of the independent socialists, published the notice of the former empress's death in three sentences on page two.


April 21, 1921, p.4

Argentinian Declaration for the German People

Argentina has earned a warm place in German hearts because during the war it maintained its neutrality despite pressure from the allies and the United States. Of all the smaller nations present at the first League of Nations session in Geneva earlier this year, Argentina was the only nation to raise objections to the absolute dominance of the treaty-drafting countries. It was in favor of the League's efforts to establish democracy and it condemned the unconditional suppression imposed by the occupation forces. With equal determination it assailed the Entente nations' efforts to restrict free trade with Germany as prescribed by the Treaty of Versailles. After nearly seven years the German passenger ship "Argentina" recently reached the port of Buenos Aires. The ship received an enthusiastic reception with a moving declaration for the German people, which was reported in the German newspaper La Plata as follows:

"Never before has a simple passenger steamship, which is neither particularly large nor especially remarkable, received such an enthusiastic reception in the harbor of Buenos Aires as the greeting received yesterday by the German steamship "Argentina." The reception signified a declaration of deep sympathy for the German people by the Argentinian people and the Spanish colony because it was the first German passenger ship to dock there since the beginning of the war. And what a grand reception it was! From the early hours of the morning flag-bearing tugboats filled with people awaited the "Argentina's" arrival. They accompanied the steamship to its anchoring point at Dársena Norte. As it docked the tugboats blew their sirens, except for the English and French boats. It was especially remarkable that the small steamers of the Public Works Ministry also sounded as they would for a warship. A division of troops from the Marine Depot saluted and the crew from the Argentinian transport ship Chaco conducted a parade performance on deck. The crew of the training vessel of Marine President Sarmento issued loud hurrahs. As it greeted the German ship Sarmento raised the flag of Argentina on the main mast. Ships in the harbor sounded their sirens to welcome to the German steamer and the Spanish steamers raised the flag of Queen Victoria Eugenia.

"The reception had not been planned beforehand. The German liner saw it as a spontaneous show of affection, thus making it an even more precious gesture. Every German, who heart has bled under the humilitation and oppression daily perpetrated upon us by our enemies for the sole purpose of nullifying our existence, will see this honor as a wish for our well-being. We must remember that there are still good people in this world. Over three thousand people awaited the arrival of the German steamship in Dársena Norte. The ship docked amid hurrahs for Germany and Argentina."


April 28, 1921, p.3

Ladies' Dresses with "Pipe Pockets."

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In the fall of 1921 an interesting innovation will come to the market of ready-to-wear dresses for young women. It's a humble yet artful accessory—a pocket made specifically made for a tobacco pipe!

It must be added that this innovation has no direct link to the issue of female suffrage, as many might initially construe. There are two surprising reasons for the modification. Hasn't it often been heard in women's fashion circles that Eve's daughters call clothing modifications very conservative? Or from other corners that liberation from the change purse might be advisable?

As a result an organization has arisen, led by young women who have spent a certain amount of time receiving an education in Gotham and now producing clothing in accordance with their own agenda. This has nothing to do with the cut of fabric or similar sewing techniques but rather accommodating opportunities for smoking.

Women should give up cigarettes and cigarette cases because they're too expensive. Instead they should go back to the old-fashioned corncob pipe in a more elegant form. And thus the need for the pipe pocket in dresses—for now and evermore?


May 5, 1921, p.5

Prof. Einstein honored in Washington

Washington, D.C. — Professor Albert Einstein, discoverer of the Theory of Relativity, called the damage to science "caused by actions of political mischief" regrettable. He gave a lecture before the National Academy of Science in German where he expressed the hope "that the field of activity by men of science shall again be united and that the entire world will work together towards a common outcome."

The imminent scholar thanked the President of the Academy, Chas. D. Walcott, for the tribute but such recognition presents a quandry for him.

He stated, "When after many long years of research a man stumbles upon an idea which reveals something beautiful about the secrets of the universe, he should not receive personal celebrity. He's already received enough validation through his journey in research and discovery. In science an individual's work stands united with that of his predecessors and contemporaries as an impersonal product of his generation."

In his welcoming address President Walcott said: "The academy rejoices in celebrating this brilliant and penetrating intellect who has so enriched the philosophy of ultimate truth. We congratulate you on your research, which has leapt beyond the boundries of nationalism and time. Your name has become synonymous with your research and shall forever be a household word for humanity."


June 23, 1921, p.3

A "Boche" with a French Military Medal

As only the Cri de Paris could report, during the middle of the war a strange event occurred in which a German soldier was awarded a French military medal. This happened in Verdun in July 1916 when a German prisoner was delivered to a medical station because of severe wounds to his face and neck, which prevented his ability to speak a word. After a perfunctory examination the orderly took the best French military coat he could lay his hands on and placed it on the half-naked body of the wounded man. When the orderly asked the field doctor what last name he should write on the form which was usually attached to the button of the wounded man's uniform the doctor responded, "Write "Boche." — "And the first name?" the orderly asked. "Fritz, of course," the doctor replied. The vastly overworked orderly wrote Boche on the tag but hastily shortened the first name to the initials Fr. The wounded man was transported from one medical station to another until he finally reached a hospital in Verdun, but the man still could not speak due to his injuries. On the evening of his arrival General Mangin visited the hospital, as it was part of his usual routine to spend a few hours with wounded men who only had a few more hours to live. He found the German soldier who was still wrapped in the French military coat who then received a military medal directly from the hands of the General. Later when the official recording of the decoration was made the German soldier was listed as belonging to the 117th Regiment because that is what was indicated on the coat's button. Naturally no further information could be found so, for good or bad, a personnel record was invented with minimal reason given for the award. Thus it reads in issue 242, page 26 of the French Bulletin des Armées: "Boche, Florentin, Registration No. C 183 1 b, reservist in the 117th Infantry Regiment, 5th Company. Excellent soldier, courageous and ready to sacrifice himself. Severely wounded and dispatched from his watch to his grave on July 26, 1916. Completely blinded.


July 14, 1921 p.6

The Curse of Spiritualism

In the Knechtenhof community of Thalkirchen near Immenstadt master mason Blenk along with his wife and adult sons and daughters was driven mad by his Spiritualist profession. In order to gain access to the "pure light" the mason tampered the electrical system and destroyed everything in the house right down to the pots and pans. The furniture was strewn about forming a king's throne, covered with bed linens and other fabrics with the intention of setting it all on fire. The family father was convinced that he had to bring the three-month-old illegitimate child of his daughter to the light by creating burnt offerings. All eleven members of the family had taken the names of apostles and saints. By order of the Fire Department the whole family was placed in the custody of the insane asylum in Kaufbeuren.


July 14, 1921 p.8

Criticizes America

Berlin, July 11 — In an interview with a representative of the Rotterdam Courant, Professor Einstein discussed his impressions of America. It culminated with the declaration that in America there is little which interests the people, who live in a general state of boredom. "Admittedly," he added, "New York, Boston, Chicago and other large cities have their theaters and concerts but elsewhere? There are cities with a million people where there is a terrible dearth of intellectual activity.

"Anything like the Theory of Relativity, for example, is merely something with which they like to play. They amuse themselves, they get excited about things, they dispute and discuss things with forceful enthusiasm."

Women Dominate American Life

"Another fact I observed was how women dominate American life. Many men are only interested in their work. They think about work to an extent I've never seen any place else. The other men are mere lap dogs for their women. They surrender their money without a fuss to their wives then plunge themselves into wastefulness. They do whatever occurs to them in the moment. Such is their attention to the Einstein Theory.

"It made a silly impression upon me. Observing their enthusiasm for the theory, I wondered, do they understand any part of it? I believed that this was a mysterious idea which they could not comprehend but which enchanted them."

Two Different Worlds, Even In Science

With regard to his impressions of America's scientific life, the German intellectual replied he was brought together with extrordinarily gifted teachers. He made special mention of Professors Michelsen and Milliken of Chicago. He remarked:

"It would be ridiculous to compare the overall scientific existence of America with that of Europe. Similarly you cannot compare European life with that of America. They're two completely different worlds."

Professor Einstein spoke enthusiastically about the deep impression scientific existence in England made upon him. "In England," he said, "What seriousness, what energy, what fire! It's more intense there than in Germany and much more pleasing."

The German scholar had the most praise for Oxford. He also added, "I was also impressed by Princeton in America."

Much May Be Expected From America's Young Men

"I believe that much may be expected from America's young men. Even if intellectual life over there plays no significant role right now, there is a younger generation which is attempting to raise the intellectual bar and their efforts will surely succeed. Then whatever America seriously endeavors it will accomplish."


July 21, 1921 p.5

Dr. Einstein describes his impressions of America in a cable as extremely favorable.

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New York, July 16 — In a cable sent yesterday to the American Zionist League, Dr. Albert Einstein, discoverer of the Theory of Relativity, absolutely denied printed remarks ascribed to him that "American men were lap dogs of the other sex" and that above all else, "Women dominate every aspect of American life." Prof. Einstein insists that he received a extremely favorable impression of America.

"I did not make the remarks attributed to me and I deny the impressions of America ascribed to me," the cable stated. "I especially contest the accuracy of the article written in the Dutch newspaper and I am dreadfully disturbed by it. I was not disenchanted with America or with the meetings with the Zionist League, headed by Dr. Weizmann. The tour proved to be a great intellectual and financial success."


July 21, 1921 p.8 col.6

Dreaded Indian Summer

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The Name was previously a Terrible Term for the Pioneer Settlers

In our time the term "Indian Summer" essentially refers to conditions during the fall season and was alternately called 'Old Woman Summer" in many lovely American songs. In most cases the term is linked to pleasant memories of Nature.

However the term originally had a different meaning, by no means pleasant and often terrible. In earlier days it referred to horrible or painful life experiences or premature death for pioneers in remote regions. The term had a literal interpretation as follows:

During the long-fought Indian wars the settlers never enjoyed a time of peace except in winter and then only when the weather was so harsh that the Indians could not conduct successful raids or even find opportunities to launch them. Usually the backwoods folk joyously greeted the arrival of winter even though they spent the time closely packed together in their uncomfortable little strongholds. Individual families or groups went back to their blockhouses on their own farms and enjoyed productive peace and quiet.

But sometimes the heavens displayed a different face as still happens today. As winter approached the weather became warmer. Here lies the original meaning of the term Indian summer.

The term simply meant a new and extra opportunity for the native people to conduct lethal raids on the settlers. There was no alarm warning along the border. Instead the Indians let out a lusty cry.

Federal troops were usually always at the border but the horizon was vast and the soldiers often somewhere else. Plus the red men were devilishly quick. There would have been many more fatal raids if there hadn't been many informants among the tribes, who created opportunities to increase their own status.

Returning to Indian summer, Rev. J. Doddridge described in a book from 1824 (Notices on the Settlement and Indian Wars in the western part of Virginia — to which West Virginia and parts of Pennsylvania belonged at the time): "In my day the backwoods people couldn't hear the term "Indian summer" without having a shiver run up their spines because of their previous horrible experiences!"

And these backwoods men, to whom the orphaned boy Abraham Lincoln belonged, were certainly not nervous and weak little sissies.


July 28, 1921 p.8

Airplane with a Speed of 312 Miles per Hour

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London, July 27 — A German inventor named Hanschk, who experimented in Holland, has invented an airplane which can reach 312 miles per hour according to a telegram from Amsterdam.


August 4, 1921 p.7

America To The Alien

Valuable as is the work of Americanization by personal contact, the thorough method is to approach the alien through our foreign language press. That was the plan of Carl Schurz and his associates with the first great German immigration, and it is more than ever necessary now that we have to deal with large colonies of some eightenn different nationalities. It is well to offer the right hand of fellowship, to expound the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; but the alien's newspaper reaches him day by day through his intimate and permanent needs.

The Foreign Language Information Service was established during the war to keep the alien in touch with its progress and with our concern in it. It was of great help in assisting army draft boards and Liberty Loan campaigns. The organization thus built up, with its fifteen sections each in touch with the newspapers of one or more languages, was found to be almost equally valuable in the service of peace. Left to itself, the foreign language press was made up of letters and dispatches from the home country, eked out by translations of more or less relative matter from the American press. But many departments at Washington had need of instant and free communication with our foreign populations, who in turn were vitally interested in what the Government was prepared to do for them. The Declaration of Independence is of little interest to those who are held in the bondage to a foreign speech and foreign customs, or the Constitution to those who are unaware of the opportunities which our Government offers.

The great bulk of the information issued by the Service comes from the Children's Bureau, the Council of National Defense and the Departments of Agriculture and Health. Our foreign-born population numbers about fourteen millions, of whom at least three millions cannot understand or speak English, while another three millions cannot read it. The newspapers and periodicals in touch with the Service number 795. A cardinal principle of the organization is that not a line of propaganda shall be introduced, direct or indirect. Departmental statements are cut and otherwise revised for the purpose in hand, but never colored. As a result the Service possess the entire confidence of both the Gevernment and the alien.

Of special interest in the current report is a series of charts representing the political bias of representative papers as expressed in their editorials. In nine Socialist papers 88 per cent. of the editorials are charted as "liberal," 10 per cent. as "conservative," while only 2 per cent. are "radical." In four avowedly Communist papers 60 per cent. of the editorials are "liberal" and only 40 per cent. "radical." In a more generally representative group of 86 papers 51 per cent. of the editorials are "liberal," 41 per cent. "conservative," only 3 per cent "radical" and actually 5 per cent "reactionary." In other words, opinion in the foreign language press has a leaning toward radicalism only slightly greater than that of the English press in New York City. (New York Times.)


August 26, 1921 p.3 col.5-6

What Should I Do?

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Practical Advice for the Foreign-Born Population.

The Foreign Language Information Service, 15 West 37th St., New York City, which provides immigrant groups with information on American affairs, institutions, and laws in their own languages, deals with several hundred cases each week. The following are typical cases, which the general public might find interesting.

A mother with two children, all three of whom could not read, immigrated to the United States. The woman expected her husband and the father of their two children to be there for them. No one could find where the man lived so, in order to prevent the woman and children from being sent back, the woman's father was contacted. He had lived in this country for some time and posted bonds for his daughter and grandchildren. In his desire to expedite the process he consulted an unscrupulous person who told him that besides the bond he had to pay an additional $600 to Ellis Island. The rash man paid the money without getting a receipt.

When the Foreign Language Information Service investigated it was revelaed that the $600 was not sent to Ellis Island since cash was never accepted in such cases. Since the supposed agent disappeared without a trace the case was turned over to the appropriate authorities for investigation and prosecution.

An immigrant in New York lost an eye in a job accident. He believed he should be compensated for the injury but he didn't know how to collect the money. While he was in the hospital he learned about the Foreign Language Information Service. He wrote to the Bureau. His case was given to the language-specific department manager, who contacted the immigrant and brought him before the compensation board. The immigrant was awarded $2650. When the man contacted the employer's insurance company he admitted he intended to return to his homeland. The firm immediately indicated that according to the law immigrants not living in the United States were only entitled to 50 percent of the sum. The compensation board said the insurance company was correct and only the assistance of the Foreign Language Information Service finally allowed the unfortunate man to collect a sum greater than half, namely $1800.

An immigrant had a dispute with his employer, who refused to pay his wages. He sought information at the Foreign Language Information Service, which brought the case to the attention of the local legal aid society. The society conferred with the employer and the wages were paid.

There are legal aid societies which assist immigrants under similar circumstances in just about every large city. You can find a society's location in the city's directory. You can also get the location by writing to the Foreign Language Information Service.

In December 1920 three immigrants, a woman and her two deaf-mute daughters, arrived in the United States. All three were barred from entry at the dock. The Foreign Language Information Service mediated with the Department of Labor in Washington to present the details of the case with accompanying sworn testimony. After the incident was thoroughly investigated and many hurdles were overcome the three immigrants were bonded and given permits to remain for 6 months. During that time the family moved to Racine, Wis. where the two children were enrolled in a school for deaf-mutes. Shortly afterwards the Foreign Language Information Service received a letter from the children's teacher and the school's board reporting that the children were making good progress and giving the assurance that the mother and children will develop into excellent citizens.

During the war a young immigrant was drafted. He was assured that his mother in Lithuania, who depended on him for financial support, would regularly receive a portion of his wages as a soldier. At the end of his military service abroad, where he was wounded, he found out that his mother had died of famine as a result of her not receiving the wages. The soldier had also not received the substantial sum he was due. After attempting in vain to appeal to the authorities he wrote to the Foreign Language Information Service. After two weeks the case was settled and the former soldier received the $468 owed to him.

Further great difficulties were experience by a resident of a stretch of land, which now belongs to Yugoslavia but which earlier was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1913 the man deposited a sum of money in a bank in Chicago and then he travelled to Europe. When the United States entered the war the Alien Property Custodian requested that the bank to transfer the money to the government. After the war the man returned to the United States with the intention of retrieving the money from the bank. The bank told him what steps he needed to take in order to get the money from the government. He turned to the Foreign Language Information Service for advice. The Service took his case and met with the Yugoslavian delegate in the United States and the American government. It was established that nothing could be settled until there was a formal treaty between Yugoslavia and the United States. The Foreign Language Information Service eventually found out that the treaty had been signed. After completing many formalities the man received full return of his property from the United States government.

In the past there have been many similar cases involving the Alien Property Custodian. One of the major requirements is the surrender of convincing proof that those making a claim are citizens of the new country created from the old Austro-Hungarian Empire. Furthermore, it must be pointed out that citizens of Germany and Austria submitting claims to the Alien Property Custodian must wait until a peace treaty is signed by the United States, Germany and Austria.

                                    (German Bureau of the Foreign Language Information Service)

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Experiences of a German Physician in South America

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The well-known Berlin physician, Prof. F. Krause, was in Argentina and Brasil from June to September of 1920. He discussed his experiences in a lecture before the Berlin Medical Society, which was published in the Deutsche Medizinischen Wochenschrift. Krause was surprised by the superior quality of the scientific institutions in the major cities. The level of hygiene at the facilities in these cities was superb. Yellow fever, which previously had depopulated entire metropolises, has been quashed by draining marshes and building magnificent sewer systems. Hospitals follow modern practices similar to those at the University Institute at T. [Tübingen?].

Individual faculties seldom collaborate with each other. Only recently have the faculties in Buenos Aires joined together to form a university. Each faculty has a veritable palace at its disposal. Course work consists of performing numerous operations and attending lectures. Krause gave valuable information concerning the immigration of German physicians. Emigrating doctors must have a minimum of 90,000 Marks in order to prepare for examinations there. They may not practice medicine if they do not pass these exams. Only physicians with sufficient finances and thorough knowledge should travel there. Since the climate is not very comfortable for Germans, people over 30 years of age are advised not to immigrate.


October 13, 1921 p. 4

German Culture

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People well remember the harsh words used to describe German culture. They also recall the dreadful picture in the streetcar painted by a Belgian painter and the propaganda dispersed by the allies. Every stupid youth, and even some old men with gray hair feel qualified to sit in judgment on German culture even though they may know nothing more about culture than fabled men from Mars. Now the New York Times reports from Berlin that there are no fewer than seven thousand foreigners studying at the twenty-eight German universities. They come from all developed nations with a large portion coming from America. We would like to know how many foreigners study at English, French, and American universities. And let's not forget: if the German universities didn't have such stringent entrance requirements the number of foreigners would be much greater.

                                                                          ~ Erie Tageblatt


October 13, 1921 p.5

German Reinstated into High School Curriculum

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After a four-year hiatus Syracuse's Central High School has begun reintroducing German into its curriculum. The Northside High School in the predominantly German section of the city will not be able to follow suit. For now the school will begin with one class. Each year for the next three years a new class will be added. Twenty-six students have enrolled so far. Wm. G. Schaffrath, head of the Department of Modern Languages, will be the instructor.

Our school superintendent, Percy M. Hughes, described the need for reintroduction of German language instruction: "German should be taught for two reasons, its practical applications and its usefulness in training the intellect. There is a significant number of people in this world who speak German.

"In order to discuss the social and political issues with German speakers, we must know the language. In order to comprehend their opinions proficiency of their language is indespensible. Many people learn German for business and literary reasons. Additionally a large number of English words have their origins in the German language, thus knowledge of their language helps with the study of our own language."


October 13, 1921 p.5

The House Blessing

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A German traveler arrived at an isolated English inn. To his astonishment we found a beautifully ornate adage on the wall: "Hier wohnt ein richtiger Gauner." [A real trickster lives here.]

"Who speaks German here?" the traveler asked. "German? No one," the innkeeper responded. He pointed to the adage on the wall and said, "A painter donated that Latin house blessing to me while he was staying here. The saying means 'May Heaven bless your entrance.'"


October 13, 1921 p.6

On the Comportment of German Nationals Abroad

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Ten Golden Rules for Germans Traveling Abroad

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By Director F.W. Oehler, Castle Gerach

During the war hatred against Germans grew significantly. We not only need to thank the planned propaganda of the Entente nations but also in large measure the comportment of certain German nationals abroad.

For example, during the war how should one have responded when a Swiss citizen arrived at a fine inn in Zurich, approached a table and politely asked "Is this seat available?" only to receive the response "Yes, but only if you're a German citizen!"

Or when a German rants and raves at a railway ticket counter because the agent doesn't accept German Marks since they are no longer currency accepted in Switzerland. What message does it give when a German in Holland states that with a flick of the wrist Holland would be in Germany's pocket. Or while in Austria or Hungary a German ridicules the accuracy of Austrian weapons and perhaps that's why their blood flows so freely at Isonzo and other regions. You might think these examples are exceptions, but they're not. Complaints never cease and even before the war Germans traveling abroad were known for their bad humor. They made fun of things they did not understand or they acted like misbehaving children with their mothers or displayed an arrogance even Germans at home would find appalling.

Hopefully the sad end of the war will teach us Germans humility. Nonetheless we'll publish the following ten rules for the German citizen traveling abroad:

  1. Never forget that you're no longer at home within your country's borders. You are a guest.
  2. Observe the customs of others and try to understand them without disowning your own.
  3. Don't always talk about what's better in Germany or Berlin than in the country you're visiting. Acknowledge the hospitality shown to you and never forget each individual sees life through his own eyes.
  4. Do not deny your German nature but always behave so that it reflects favorably on the fatherland. Foreigners judge the homeland by how you act.
  5. Always dress as a guest in someone else's house. Don't think anything will do because you're abroad.
  6. Thrift is also a duty when abroad. Be frugal with yourself but don't skimp on others.
  7. Avoid criticizing the food and remember even abroad you are judged by what you eat.
  8. Avoid political discussions because they require tact and knowledge of the mindset and history of the country in which you are a guest.
  9. Have the courage to speak with your countrymen when they portray your fatherland poorly.
  10. Behave abroad as you would have foreigners behave in your homeland.
  11.                                                                           (German Foreign Institute.)


October 20, 1921 p.8 col.1

Redeemed in Death

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Dr. Hexamer, Founder of the National Alliance (The Bund,") Victim of Wartime Propaganda.

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Philadelphia, October 16th — Dr. C.J. Hexamer died yesterday. In a true sense of the term, he was a victim of wartime propaganda because as the leader of the German-American National Alliance he was prosecuted and his life was completely disrupted. He dedicated his life to the Alliance and he could not prevent it from falling into the abyss during the war. He was 59 years old. He died in the city in which he was born.

C.J. Hexamer attended Eastburn Academy and the University of Pennsylvania. He earned doctoral degrees in philsophy and jurisprudence and a diploma in engineering. He established himself as a civil engineer who received a sound education conducted by German-educated technicians and intellectuals. Hard work and studious achievement soon earned him a fine reputation and acknowledgement of his scientific acumen. Many of Hexamer's inventions were recognized by the Franklin Institute and he was awarded the John Scott Legacy Medal and Premium. The German Chemical Society chose to make this rapidly rising man a life-long member. In 1891 Mr. Hexamer led a German woman to the altar. Mrs. Hexamer preceded her husband in death many years ago.

In his youth Hexamer was acquainted with respected older German-Americans such as Dr. G. Kellner and Dr. Oswald Seidensticker, the first significant German-American historian. Perhaps his deep interest in German-American history took root due to his friendship with them. He wrote countless articles for newspapers and journals and he was a member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Kellner and Seidensticker were also instrumental in his developing the idea of an alliance for German-Americans, which he organized and then successfully led. Since 1897 he has dedicated his undivided attention to the German-American Alliance. In the winter of the fateful year 1917 he ceased his work.


October 20, 1921 p.6 col.4

Women Studying in Prussia

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Occupational Training Now A Priority

As reported by the Academic Information Office in Berlin, a total of 6137 women studied at Prussian universities in the Winter 1920-21 semester. 325 of these women were foreigners. 4832 were matriculated and 1305 audited classes. The University of Berlin was at the top of the list with 1830 female students followed by Bonn (607), Cologne (549) Breslau (547), Münster (493), Frankfurt (487), Göttingen (332), Marburg (331), Königsberg (298), Halle (268), Kiel (214) Greifswald (181).

330 women were not yet 20 years old. 4853 between the ages of 20 and 30, 954 over 30 years old. Religious profession was divided as follows: 3657 were Protestant, 1613 Catholic, 722 Jewish, 75 belonged to various other professions and 70 had no religious affiliation. According to marital status 5761 were single and 376 were married, widowed or divorced.

Clerical workers headed the list of occupations represented with 2368, merchants 1338, 326 skilled trades, and 2105 in various other occupations. The greater portion (3815) were enrolled in humanities programs with 480 in philosophy, 1203 in modern philology, 147 in ancient philology, 213 in history, 362 in art and art history, 446 in mathematics, 530 in the sciences, 53 in agriculture. 69 female students chose theology as their major. Law 183, medicine 1065, dentistry 162, political science and economics 886.

Educational goals ranged from 1625 seeking general knowledge, 3646 intending to complete examinations and graduate, 866 completing doctoral programs. 2351 had graduated from science or technical high schools, 593 had completed general secondary education programs, 491 came from vocational high schools. Going from girls' primary schools through completion of secondary school exams there were 741 who graduated. 1537 candidates completed the teachers qualification exams. This number is similar to last year's total. Total number of female students in the Winter Semester of 1908-08 was 1680 and in the Summer Semester 1914 there were 2896. Winter Semester 1918-19 saw 5131 female students whereas Winter Semester 1920-21 saw 6137. The increase came primarily from women under 30 while the the number of those over 30 remained essentially the same. Since the war the number of women studying medicine showed the greatest increase, 10 times greater than 12 years ago. Similar increases were found in the study of law and political science. With regard to religious affiliation the catholic women showed the greatest increase. Other affiliations increased proportionately from 1 to 3 whereas catholic students grew 10 fold. Skilled trades and the worker class showed the largest increase in enrollment of female students. The change in previous education also showed significant increase. In Winter Semester 1908-09 of 1680 female students only 347 had a high school diploma. Winter 1920-21 3435 students, more than half the female student population, possessed a high school diploma. The change in the ultimate goal of students from 12 years earlier is especially noteworthy. Back then the goal was to increase one's general or overall knowledge. Today the goal is occupational or professional training.


November 24, 1921, p.6

The "Electric Chair" for Dogs and Cats

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According to the English Society of Pet Lovers the "electric chair" has been named the most humane method of killing unowned dogs and cats. In 1920 42,724 animals were killed with electricity. These were animals without owners, neglected and taken off the street for which the Society had no other solution than extermination. Death occurred instantaneously on the electirc chair and there was no chance of blunder which could lead to agony for the animal. A steel collar is wrapped around a dog's neck and connected by a short chain to an electrical apparatus. A current of 2,000 Volts is sent through the animal's body and it dies immediately. Cats are placed in an open container with a glass cover. The current of 2,000 Volts is sent through the bottom of the container and exterminates the animal.


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Translation by Susan Kriegbaum-Hanks